Diabetes that is not properly controlled can lead to periodontal (gum) diseases in both young and old people. Periodontal diseases are infections of the gums and bone that hold the teeth in place.

Diabetes and periodontal (gum) diseases

Because of blood vessel changes that occur with diabetes, the thickened blood vessels can impair the efficiency of the flow of nutrients and removal of wastes from body tissues. This impaired blood flow can weaken the gums and bone, making them more susceptible to infection.

In addition, if diabetes is poorly controlled, higher glucose levels in the mouth fluids will encourage the growth of bacteria that can cause gum disease. On the other hand, uncontrolled periodontal disease may make it more difficult to control the diabetes.

A third factor, smoking, is harmful to oral health even for people without diabetes. However, a person with diabetes who smokes is at a much greater risk for gum disease than a person who does not have diabetes.

Paired with poor oral hygiene, diabetes can lead to gingivitis, the first stage of periodontal disease, or to periodontitis, which is severe gum disease.

What are the signs and symptoms of periodontal disease?

The following are the most common signs and symptoms of gum disease. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Signs and symptoms may include:

  • Red, swollen, tender gums

  • Bleeding while brushing and/or flossing

  • Receding gums

  • Loose or separating teeth

  • Persistent bad breath

  • Dentures no longer fit

  • Pus between the teeth and gums

  • A change in bite and jaw alignment

The signs and symptoms of gum disease may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Consult a dentist or other oral health specialist for a diagnosis.

What are the different types of periodontal disease?

The different types of periodontal disease are often classified by the stage the disease has advanced to at the time of evaluation, including:

  • Gingivitis

    With gingivitis, the mildest form of periodontal disease, the gums are likely to become red, swollen, and tender, causing them to bleed easily during daily cleanings and flossing. Treatment by a dentist and proper, consistent care at home help to resolve the problems associated with gingivitis.

  • Mild periodontitis

    Untreated gingivitis leads to mild periodontitis. This stage of gum disease shows evidence of the development of periodontal pockets (gums pulling away from the teeth, causing the crevice between the teeth and gums to deepen) and early loss of bone around the teeth. Prompt medical attention is necessary to prevent further erosion of bone and gum damage.

  • Moderate to advanced periodontitis

    This most advanced stage of gum disease shows significant bone and tissue loss, deepening of periodontal pockets, and possibly receding gums surrounding the teeth. Teeth may loosen and need to be extracted.

Treatment for periodontal disease

Specific treatment for periodontal disease will be determined by your dentist based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the disease

  • Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the disease

  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment may include any, or a combination of, the following:

  • Tartar an plaque removal beneath the gums

    Deep cleaning (also called scaling and root planing) can help remove the plaque and calculus beneath the gum and infected tissue in the early stages of the disease, while smoothing the damaged root surfaces of the teeth. The gums can then reattach to the teeth.

  • Medication - Antibacterial medications may be placed topically in the periodontal pockets or taken orally.

  • Surgery

    When the disease is advanced, the infected areas under the gums will be cleaned, and the tissues will then be reshaped or replaced. Types of surgeries include pocket reduction. a regeneration procedure, a soft tissue graft, or a crown lengthening.

Diabetes and other oral problems

Diabetes can also cause other oral problems, including:

  • Thrush

    Thrush, a fungal infection of the mouth, occurs more often in persons with diabetes because of high glucose (sugar) levels in the saliva. Fungus thrives on glucose.

  • Dry mouth

    Dry mouth (often a symptom of undetected diabetes) means the mouth does not have enough saliva to keep itself wet. Saliva is necessary to help digest food, and prevent infection and tooth decay by controlling bacteria and fungi. Dry mouth can make tasting, chewing, and swallowing food difficult, and can impede speech. In addition, dry mouth can cause mouth infections and tooth decay.

Your Guide to Diabetes