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Bones, Joints and Muscles Glossary

Terms used to explain Bones, Joints and Muscles can sometimes be confusing. To help you fully understand the articles and features related to this very important health topic, we have compiled a glossary of terms that can help.


Pronunciation: \ˌā-(ˌ)sē-ˈel\

Function: noun
: see: anterior cruciate ligament


Pronunciation: \-ˈtab-yə-ləm\

Function: noun
pl -lums
or -la
Pronunciation: \-lə\

1: the cup-shaped socket in the hip bone
2: a sucker of an invertebrate (as a trematode or leech)


Pronunciation: \ə-ˌsēt-ə-ˈmin-ə-fən, ˌas-ət-\

Function: noun
: a crystalline compound C8H9NO2 that is a hydroxy derivative of acetanilide and is used in chemical synthesis and in medicine instead of aspirin to relieve pain and fever —called also paracetamol, see liquiprin panadol tylenol


Pronunciation: \-ˌpəŋ(k)-chər\

Function: noun
: an orig. Chinese practice of inserting fine needles through the skin at specific points esp. to cure disease or relieve pain (as in surgery)


Function: noun
: abnormal absence or suppression of menstruation see primary amenorrhea secondary amenorrhea

Anterior Cruciate Ligament

anterior cruciate ligament
Function: noun
: a cruciate ligament of each knee that is attached in front to the more medial aspect of the tibia, that passes upward, backward, and laterally through the middle of the knee crossing the posterior cruciate ligament to attach to the femur, that functions to prevent hyperextension of the knee and to keep the tibia from sliding forward in relation to the femur, and that is subject to sports injury esp. by tearing —called also ACL


Pronunciation: \är-ˈthrīt-əs\

Function: noun
pl -thrit*i*des
Pronunciation: \-ˈthrit-ə-ˌdēz\
: inflammation of joints due to infectious, metabolic, or constitutional causes; also: a specific arthritic condition (as gouty arthritis or psoriatic arthritis)


Pronunciation: \ˈär-thrə-ˌplas-tē\

Function: noun
pl -ties
: plastic surgery of a joint (as the hip or knee) : the operative formation or restoration of a joint


Pronunciation: \är-ˈthräs-kə-pē\

Function: noun
pl -pies
: examination of a joint with an arthroscope; also: joint surgery using an arthroscope

Articular Cartilage

articular cartilage
Function: noun
: cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of bones


Pronunciation: \-ˈsep-tik\

Function: adjective

1: preventing infection <aseptic techniques>
2: free or freed from pathogenic microorganisms <an aseptic operating room>


Pronunciation: \-im-ˈyün\

Function: adjective
: of, relating to, or caused by antibodies or T cells that attack molecules, cells, or tissues of the organism producing them <autoimmune diseases>


Pronunciation: \(ˌ)bər-ˈsīt-əs\

Function: noun
: inflammation of a bursa (as of the shoulder or elbow)

CT Scan

CT scan
Pronunciation: \(ˈ)sē-ˈtē-\

Function: noun
: see: cat scan


Pronunciation: \ˈkal-sē-əm\

Function: noun
often attrib: a silver-white bivalent metallic element that is an alkaline earth metal, occurs only in combination, and is an essential constituent of most plants and animals symbol Casee element table

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

carpal tunnel syndrome
Function: noun
: a condition caused by compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel and characterized esp. by weakness, pain, and disturbances of sensation in the hand and fingers abbr. CTS


Pronunciation: \ˈkärt-əl-ij, ˈkärt-lij\

Function: noun

1: a usu. translucent somewhat elastic tissue that composes most of the skeleton of vertebrate embryos and except for a small number of structures (as some joints, respiratory passages, and the external ear) is replaced by bone during ossification in the higher vertebrates
2: a part or structure composed of cartilage


Pronunciation: \-ˌn(y)ü-klē-ˈäl-ə-səs\

Function: noun
pl -y*ses
: treatment of a slipped disk by the injection of chymopapain to dissolve the displaced nucleus pulposus


Pronunciation: \ˈkī-rə-ˌprak-tik\

Function: noun
: a system of therapy which holds that disease results from a lack of normal nerve function and which employs manipulation and specific adjustment of body structures (as the spinal column)


Pronunciation: \ˈkrän-ik\

Function: adjective

1 a: marked by long duration, by frequent recurrence over a long time, and often by slowly progressing seriousness : not acute <chronic[1] indigestion> <her hallucinations became chronic[1]>
b: suffering from a disease or ailment of long duration or frequent recurrence <a chronic[1] arthritic> <chronic[1] sufferers from asthma>
2 a: having a slow progressive course of indefinite duration used esp. of degenerative invasive diseases, some infections, psychoses, and inflammations <chronic[1] heart disease> <chronic[1] arthritis> <chronic[1] tuberculosis> compare acute 2b(1)
b: infected with a disease-causing agent (as a virus) and remaining infectious over a long period of time but not necessarily expressing symptoms <chronic[1] carriers may remain healthy but still transmit the virus causing hepatitis B>

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

chronic fatigue syndrome
Function: noun
: a disorder of uncertain cause that is characterized by persistent profound fatigue usu. accompanied by impairment in short-term memory or concentration, sore throat, tender lymph nodes, muscle or joint pain, and headache unrelated to any preexisting medical condition and that typically has an onset at about 30 years of age abbr. CFS—called also myalgic encephalomyelitis


Pronunciation: \ˈkäl-chə-ˌsēn, ˈkäl-kə-\

Function: noun
: a poisonous alkaloid C22H25NO6 that inhibits mitosis, is extracted from the corms or seeds of the autumn crocus, and is used in the treatment of gout and acute attacks of gouty arthritis


Pronunciation: \ˈkän-ˌdīl also -dəl\

Function: noun
: an articular prominence of a bone used chiefly of such as occur in pairs resembling a pair of knuckles (as those of the occipital bone for articulation with the atlas, those at the distal end of the humerus and femur, and those of the lower jaw)see lateral condyle medial condyle

Connective Tissue

con*nec*tive tissue
Pronunciation: \kə-ˌnek-tiv-\

Function: noun
: a tissue of mesodermal origin that consists of various cells (as fibroblasts and macrophages) and interlacing protein fibers (as of collagen) embedded in a chiefly carbohydrate ground substance, that supports, ensheathes, and binds together other tissues, and that includes loose and dense forms (as adipose tissue, tendons, ligaments, and aponeuroses) and specialized forms (as cartilage and bone)


Pronunciation: \ˌkort-i-kō-ˈsti(ə)r-ˌoid also -ˈste(ə)r-\

Function: noun
: any of various adrenal-cortex steroids (as corticosterone, cortisone, and aldosterone) that are divided on the basis of their major biological activity into glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids


Pronunciation: \-ˌsōn, -ˌzōn\

Function: noun
: a glucocorticoid C21H28O5 that is produced naturally in small amounts by the adrenal cortex and is administered in the form of its synthetic acetate C23H30O6 esp. as replacement therapy for deficient adrenocortical secretion and as an anti-inflammatory agent (as for rheumatoid arthritis) compare 11-dehydrocorticosterone

Degenerative Arthritis

degenerative arthritis
Function: noun
: see: osteoarthritis


Pronunciation: \ˌdī-(y)ə-ˈret-ik\

Function: adjective
: tending to increase the excretion of urine


Pronunciation: \ˌep-i-ˈd(y)ur-əl\

Function: adjective
: situated upon or administered or placed outside the dura mater <epidural[1] anesthesia> <an epidural[1] abscess>


Pronunciation: \i-ˈrith-rə-ˌsīt\

Function: noun
: see: red blood cell


Pronunciation: \ˈes-trə-jən\

Function: noun
: any of various natural steroids (as estradiol) that are formed from androgen precursors, that are secreted chiefly by the ovaries, placenta, adipose tissue, and testes, and that stimulate the development of female secondary sex characteristics and promote the growth and maintenance of the female reproductive system; also: any of various synthetic or semisynthetic steroids (as ethinyl estradiol) that mimic the physiological effect of natural estrogens


Pronunciation: \ˌfī-(ˌ)brō-ˌmī-ˈal-j(ē-)ə\
Function: noun
1: a chronic disorder characterized by widespread pain, tenderness, and stiffness of muscles and associated connective tissue structures that is typically accompanied by fatigue, headache, and sleep disturbances —called also fibromyalgia syndrome, fibromyositis


Pronunciation: \ˈfib-yə-lə\

Function: noun
pl -lae
Pronunciation: \-lē also -ˌlī\
or -las
: the outer or postaxial and usu. the smaller of the two bones of the hind or lower limb below the knee that is the slenderest bone of the human body in proportion to its length, articulates above with the external tuberosity of the tibia and below with the talus, and has its lower end forming the external malleolus of the ankle —called also calf bone


Pronunciation: \glü-ˈkō-sə-ˌmēn, -zə-\

Function: noun
: an amino derivative C6H13NO5 of glucose that occurs esp. as a constituent of polysaccharides (as chitin) in animal supporting structures and some plant cell walls

Hamstring Muscle

hamstring muscle
Function: noun
: any of three muscles at the back of the thigh that function to flex and rotate the leg and extend the thigh:
a: see: semimembranosus
b: see: semitendinosus
c: see: biceps b


Function: noun
pl -thro*ses
Pronunciation: \-ˌsēz\

: hemorrhage into a joint

Hemolytic Anemia

hemolytic anemia
Function: noun
: anemia caused by excessive destruction (as in chemical poisoning, infection, or sickle-cell anemia) of red blood cells

Hip Joint

hip joint
Function: noun
: the ball-and-socket joint comprising the articulation between the femur and the hip bone


Pronunciation: \ˈhor-ˌmōn\

Function: noun

1 a: a product of living cells that circulates in body fluids (as blood) or sap and produces a specific often stimulatory effect on the activity of cells usu. remote from its point of origin —called also internal secretion, see plant hormone
b: a synthetic substance that acts like a hormone
2: see: sex hormone


Pronunciation: \ˌhī-pə-rik-ˈstend\

Function: transitive verb
: to extend so that the angle between bones of a joint is greater than normal <a hyperextended elbow> ; also: to extend (as a body part) beyond the normal range of motion


Pronunciation: \-ˌpar-ə-ˈthī-ˌroid-ˌiz-əm\

Function: noun
: the presence of excess parathyroid hormone in the body resulting in disturbance of calcium metabolism with increase in serum calcium and decrease in inorganic phosphorus, loss of calcium from bone, and renal damage with frequent kidney-stone formation


Function: noun
: excess uric acid in the blood (as in gout) —called also uricacidemia, uricemia


Pronunciation: \-ˌiz-əm\

Function: noun
: deficient activity of the thyroid gland; also: a resultant bodily condition characterized by lowered metabolic rate and general loss of vigor


Pronunciation: \ˌī-byu-ˈprō-fən\

Function: noun
: a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug C13H18O2 used in over-the-counter preparations to relieve pain and fever and in prescription strength esp. to relieve the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and degenerative arthritis see advil motrin

Interstitial Cystitis

Function: noun
1: a chronic idiopathic cystitis characterized by painful inflammation of the subepithelial connective tissue and often accompanied by Hunner's ulcer


Pronunciation: \ˌlam-ə-ˈnek-tə-mē\

Function: noun
pl -mies
: surgical removal of the posterior arch of a vertebra


Pronunciation: \lə-ˈbēd-(ˌ)ō also ˈlib-ə-ˌdō or lə-ˈbī-(ˌ)dō\

Function: noun
pl -dos

1: instinctual psychic energy that in psychoanalytic theory is derived from primitive biological urges (as for sexual pleasure or self-preservation) and that is expressed in conscious activity
2: sexual drive


Pronunciation: \ˈləm-bər, -ˌbär\

Function: adjective

1: of, relating to, or constituting the loins or the vertebrae between the thoracic vertebrae and sacrum <the lumbar region>
2: of, relating to, or being the abdominal region lying on either side of the umbilical region and above the corresponding iliac region


Pronunciation: \ˈlü-pəs\
Function: noun
1: any of several diseases (as lupus vulgaris or systemic lupus erythematosus) characterized by skin lesions


Pronunciation: \ˌem-(ˌ)sē-ˈel\

Function: noun
: see: medial collateral ligament


Pronunciation: \ˌem-(ˌ)är-ˈī\

Function: noun
: see: magnetic resonance imaging; also: a procedure in which magnetic resonance imaging is used


Pronunciation: \ˈmēd-ē-əl\

Function: adjective

1: lying or extending in the middle; espof a body part: lying or extending toward the median axis of the body <the medial surface of the tibia>
2: of or relating to the media of a blood vessel <necrosis and lipid deposition with medial involvement>


Pronunciation: \mə-ˈnis-kəs\

Function: noun
pl me*nis*ci
Pronunciation: \-ˈnis-ˌ(k)ī, -ˌkē\
also me*nis*cus*es

1: a crescent or crescent-shaped body
2: a fibrous cartilage within a joint:
a: either of two crescent-shaped lamellae of fibrocartilage that border and partly cover the articulating surfaces of the tibia and femur at the knee : see: semilunar cartilage:
(1): one mostly between the lateral condyles of the tibia and femur —called also external semilunar fibrocartilage, lateral meniscus, lateral semilunar cartilage
(2): one mostly between the medial condyles of the tibia and femur —called also internal semilunar fibrocartilage, medial meniscus, medial semilunar cartilage
b: a thin oval ligament of the temporomandibular joint that is situated between the condyle of the mandible and the mandibular fossa and separates the joint into two cavities
3: a concavo-convex lens
4: the curved upper surface of a liquid column that is concave when the containing walls are wetted by the liquid and convex when not


Pronunciation: \ˈmen-ə-ˌpoz, ˈmēn-\

Function: noun

1 a (1): the natural cessation of menstruation occurring usu. between the ages of 45 and 55 with a mean in Western cultures of approximately 51
(2): the physiological period in the life of a woman in which such cessation and the accompanying regression of ovarian function occurs —called also climacteric, compare perimenopause
b: cessation of menstruation from other than natural causes (as from surgical removal of the ovaries)
2: see: andropause


Pronunciation: \ˈmī-ˌgrān, Brit often ˈmē-\

Function: noun

1: a condition that is marked by recurrent usu. unilateral severe headache often accompanied by nausea and vomiting and followed by sleep, that tends to occur in more than one member of a family, and that is of uncertain origin though attacks appear to be precipitated by dilatation of intracranial blood vessels
2: an episode or attack of migraine <suffers from migraines> —called also sick headache


Pronunciation: \-ˌn(y)ü-klē-ˈō-səs\

Function: noun
: an abnormal increase of mononuclear white blood cells in the blood; specif: see: infectious mononucleosis


Pronunciation: \ˌməs-kyə-lō-ˈskel-ət-əl\

Function: adjective
: of, relating to, or involving both musculature and skeleton <musculoskeletal defects> <the musculoskeletal organization of the arm>


Pronunciation: \ˌmī-ə-ˈsīt-əs\

Function: noun
: muscular discomfort or pain from infection or an unknown cause


Pronunciation: \ˌn(y)ur-ō-tran(t)s-ˈmit-ər, -tranz-\

Function: noun
: a substance (as norepinephrine or acetylcholine) that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse see false neurotransmitter

Nucleus Pulposus

nucleus pul*po*sus
Pronunciation: \-ˌpəl-ˈpō-səs\
Function: noun
pl nuclei pul*po*si
: an elastic pulpy mass lying in the center of each intervertebral fibrocartilage and regarded as a remnant of the notochord


Pronunciation: \-är-ˈthrō-sis\

Function: noun
: see: osteoarthritis


Pronunciation: \ˈäs-tē-ə-ˌsīt\

Function: noun
: a cell that is characteristic of adult bone and is isolated in a lacuna of the bone substance


Pronunciation: \ˈäs-tē-ə-ˌfīt\

Function: noun
: a pathological bony outgrowth



Function: noun
pl -ro*ses

: a condition that affects esp. older women and is characterized by decrease in bone mass with decreased density and enlargement of bone spaces producing porosity and brittleness


Pronunciation: \ˌpē-(ˌ)sē-ˈel\

Function: noun
: see: posterior cruciate ligament


Pronunciation: \-ˈthī-ˌroid\

Function: noun
: see: parathyroid gland


Function: noun
: a sensation of pricking, tingling, or creeping on the skin having no objective cause and usu. associated with injury or irritation of a sensory nerve or nerve root


Pronunciation: \-ˈmen-ə-ˌpoz, -ˈmēn-\

Function: noun
: the period around the onset of menopause that is often marked by various physical signs (as hot flashes and menstrual irregularity)


Pronunciation: \ˌfiz-ē-ˈa-trəst\

Function: noun
: a physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation

Physical Therapy

physical therapy
Function: noun
: the treatment of disease by physical and mechanical means (as massage, regulated exercise, water, light, heat, and electricity) —called also physiotherapy


Pronunciation: \pə-ˈdag-rə\

Function: noun

1: see: gout
2: a painful condition of the big toe caused by gout


Pronunciation: \-ˌmī-ə-ˈsīt-əs\

Function: noun
: inflammation of several muscles at once; specif: an inflammatory disease of unknown cause that affects muscles and esp. skeletal muscles, is characterized typically by weakness usu. of the proximal muscles (as of the pectoral or pelvic girdles or of the neck), muscle and joint pain, pathological muscle changes (as fiber degeneration or infiltration by lymphocytes), pneumonia, and cardiac abnormalities (as arrhythmia or myocarditis) see dermatomyositis


Pronunciation: \ˈpōr-əs, ˈpor-\

Function: adjective

1: possessing or full of pores <porous bones>
2: permeable to fluids


Pronunciation: \pä-ˈstir-ē-ər, pō-\

Function: noun
: a posterior thing or part: as
a: the rear end of a quadruped
b: see: buttocks


Pronunciation: \ˈpred-nə-ˌsōn also -ˌzōn\

Function: noun
: a glucocorticoid C21H26O5 that is a dehydrogenated analog of cortisone and is used as an anti-inflammatory agent, as an antineoplastic agent, and as an immunosuppressant


Pronunciation: \präs-ˈthē-səs, ˈpräs-thə-\

Function: noun
pl -the*ses
Pronunciation: \-ˌsēz\
: an artificial device to replace or augment a missing or impaired part of the body <a dental prosthesis> <silicone breast and limb prostheses>


Pronunciation: \ˈpräth-ə-səs\

Function: noun
pl -e*ses
Pronunciation: \-ˌsēz\
: see: prosthesis


Pronunciation: \-ˈgaut\

Function: noun
: an arthritic condition which resembles gout but is characterized by the deposition of crystalline salts other than urates in and around the joints


Pronunciation: \sə-ˈrī-ə-səs\

Function: noun
pl -a*ses
Pronunciation: \-ˌsēz\

: a chronic skin disease characterized by circumscribed red patches covered with white scales

Learn more: What is Psoriasis?
Psoriatic Arthritis

psoriatic arthritis
Function: noun
: a severe form of arthritis accompanied by inflammation, psoriasis of the skin or nails, and a negative test for rheumatoid factor —called also psoriasis arthropathica

Pulse Oximeter

pulse oximeter
Function: noun
: a device that determines the oxygen saturation of the blood of an anesthetized patient using a sensor attached to a finger, yields a computerized readout, and sounds an alarm if the blood saturation becomes less than optimal


Pronunciation: \ˈpyu(ə)r-ˌēn\

Function: noun

1: a crystalline base C5H4N4 that is the parent of compounds of the uric-acid group
2: a derivative of purine; esp: a base (as adenine or guanine) that is a constituent of DNA or RNA

Quadriceps Muscle

quadriceps muscle
Function: noun
: see: quadriceps

Reactive Arthritis

reactive arthritis
Function: noun
: acute arthritis that sometimes develops following a bacterial infection (as with the bacteria of the genera Shigella, Salmonella, or Chlamydia)


Pronunciation: \(ˈ)rē-ˈsorp-shən, -ˈzorp-\

Function: noun
: the action or process of resorbing something <age-related bone loss…is caused by a slight but persistent elevation in the rate of bone resorption over the rate of bone formation P. S. Millard et al>

Revision Surgery

re*vi*sion surgery
Pronunciation: \ri-ˈvizh-ən-\

Function: noun
: surgery performed to replace or compensate for a failed implant (as a hip replacement) or to correct undesirable sequelae (as scars or scar tissue) of previous surgery


Pronunciation: \ˈrü-mə-ˌtiz-əm, ˈrum-ə-\

Function: noun

1: any of various conditions characterized by inflammation or pain in muscles, joints, or fibrous tissue <muscular rheumatism>
2: see: rheumatoid arthritis


Pronunciation: \ˌrü-mə-ˈtäl-ə-jē, ˌrum-ə-\

Function: noun
pl -gies
: a medical science dealing with rheumatic diseases


Pronunciation: \rōn-ˈzhər\

Function: noun
: a heavy-duty forceps for removing small pieces of bone or tough tissue


Pronunciation: \ˈrəp-chər\

Function: noun

1: the tearing apart of a tissue <rupture[1] of heart muscle> <rupture[1] of an intervertebral disk>
2: see: hernia

Sciatic Nerve

sciatic nerve
Function: noun
: either of the pair of largest nerves in the body that arise one on each side from the sacral plexus and that pass out of the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen and down the back of the thigh to its lower third where division into the tibial and common peroneal nerves occurs


Pronunciation: \ˌskō-lē-ˈō-səs\
Function: noun
pl -o*ses
: a lateral curvature of the spine compare kyphosis lordosis

Spinal Stenosis

spinal stenosis
Function: noun
: narrowing of the lumbar spinal column that produces pressure on the nerve roots resulting in sciatica and a condition resembling intermittent claudication and that usu. occurs in middle or old age


Pronunciation: \ˌspän-də-lō-lis-ˈthē-səs\

Function: noun
: forward displacement of a lumbar vertebra on the one below it and esp. of the fifth lumbar vertebra on the sacrum producing pain by compression of nerve roots


Pronunciation: \ˈsti(ə)r-ˌoid also ˈste(ə)r-\

Function: noun
: any of numerous natural or synthetic compounds containing a 17-carbon 4-ring system and including the sterols and various hormones and glycosides see anabolic steroid


Pronunciation: \ˌsəb-kyu-ˈtā-nē-əs\

Function: adjective
: being, living, used, or made under the skin <subcutaneous parasites>


Pronunciation: \ˈsəp-lə-mənt\

Function: noun
: something that completes or makes an addition <dietary supplement[1]s>

Synovial Membrane

synovial membrane
Function: noun
: the dense connective-tissue membrane that secretes synovial fluid and that lines the ligamentous surfaces of joint capsules, tendon sheaths where free movement is necessary, and bursae


Pronunciation: \ˌsī-nə-ˈvīt-əs\

Function: noun
: inflammation of a synovial membrane usu. with pain and swelling of the joint


Function: noun
: inflammation of a tendon


Pronunciation: \ˈthī-ˌroid\

Function: adjective

1 a: of, relating to, affecting, or being the thyroid gland <thyroid[1] disorders>
2: of, relating to, or being the thyroid cartilage


Pronunciation: \ˈtib-ē-ə\

Function: noun
pl -i*ae
Pronunciation: \-ē-ˌē, -ē-ˌī\
also -i*as
: the inner and usu. larger of the two bones of the leg between the knee and ankle that articulates above with the femur and below with the talus —called also shinbone


Pronunciation: \ˈtō-fəs\

Function: noun
pl to*phi
Pronunciation: \ˈtō-ˌfī, -ˌfē\
: a deposit of urates in tissues (as cartilage) characteristic of gout


Pronunciation: \-lər\

Function: adjective
: of, relating to, consisting of, or being trabeculae <trabecular tissue>

Trigger Point

trigger point
Function: noun
: a sensitive area of the body which when stimulated gives rise to a reaction elsewhere in the body; esp: a localized usu. tender or painful area of the body and esp. of a muscle that when stimulated gives rise to pain elsewhere in the body —called also trigger area, trigger zone


Pronunciation: \ˈyu(ə)r-ˌāt\

Function: noun
: a salt of uric acid <deposits of urates in the joints>

Uric Acid

uric acid
Function: noun
: a white odorless nearly insoluble weak acid C5H4N4O3 that is present in small quantity in mammalian urine as an end product of purine metabolism, is present abundantly in the form of urates in the excreta of most lower vertebrates and invertebrates as the chief nitrogenous waste, and occurs pathologically in renal calculi and the tophi of gout


Pronunciation: \ˈvər-tə-brō-ˌplas-tē\

Function: noun
pl -ties
: a medical procedure for reducing pain caused by a vertebral compression fracture (as that associated with osteoporosis) that involves injection of an acrylic cement (as methyl methacrylate) into the body of the fractured vertebra for stabilization compare kyphoplasty

Vitamin D

vitamin D
Function: noun
: any or all of several fat-soluble vitamins chemically related to steroids, essential for normal bone and tooth structure, and found esp. in fish-liver oils, egg yolk, and milk or produced by activation (as by ultraviolet irradiation) of sterols: as
a: see: calciferol
b: see: cholecalciferol—called also sunshine vitamin

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