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Cancer Glossary

Terms used to explain Cancer can sometimes be confusing. To help you fully understand the articles and features related to this very important health topic, we have compiled a glossary of terms that can help.

Ablate

ab*late
Pronunciation: \a-ˈblāt\


Function: transitive verb
ab*lat*ed
ab*lat*ing
: to remove or destroy esp. by cutting or abrading <ablate diseased tissue>

Abscess

ab*scess
Pronunciation: \ˈab-ˌses\



Function: noun
pl ab*scess*es
Pronunciation: \ˈab-səs-ˌēz, -ˌses-, -əz\

: a localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

acute lymphocytic leukemia
Function: noun
: see: acute lymphoblastic leukemiaabbr. ALL

Adenocarcinoma

ad*e*no*car*ci*no*ma
Pronunciation: \-ˌkärs-ən-ˈō-mə\


Function: noun
pl -mas
also -ma*ta
Pronunciation: \-mət-ə\
: a malignant tumor originating in glandular epithelium

Adenoma

ad*e*no*ma
Pronunciation: \ˌad-ən-ˈō-mə\



Function: noun
pl -mas
also -ma*ta
Pronunciation: \-mət-ə\

: a benign tumor of a glandular structure or of glandular origin

Adnexa

ad*nexa
Pronunciation: \ad-ˈnek-sə\


Function: noun plural
: conjoined, subordinate, or associated anatomic parts <the uterine adnexa include the ovaries and fallopian tubes>

Amylase

am*y*lase
Pronunciation: \ˈam-ə-ˌlās, -ˌlāz\


Function: noun
: any of a group of enzymes (as amylopsin) that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch and glycogen or their intermediate hydrolysis products

Angiography

an*gi*og*ra*phy
Pronunciation: \-fē\

Function: noun
pl -phies
: the radiographic visualization of the blood vessels after injection of a radiopaque substance

Antiandrogen

an*ti*an*dro*gen
Pronunciation: \-ˈan-drə-jən\


Function: noun
: a substance that tends to inhibit the production, activity, or effects of a male sex hormone

Asbestos

as*bes*tos
Pronunciation: \as-ˈbes-təs, az-\


Function: noun
: any of several minerals that readily separate into long flexible fibers, that have been implicated as causes of certain cancers, and that have been used esp. formerly as fireproof insulating materials

Ascites

as*ci*tes
Pronunciation: \ə-ˈsīt-ēz\


Function: noun
pl ascites
: abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the spaces between tissues and organs in the cavity of the abdomen —called also hydroperitoneum

Asthenia

as*the*nia
Pronunciation: \as-ˈthē-nē-ə\


Function: noun
: lack or loss of strength : see: debility

Astrocytoma

as*tro*cy*to*ma
Pronunciation: \ˌas-trə-sī-ˈtō-mə\


Function: noun
pl -mas
also -ma*ta
Pronunciation: \-mət-ə\
: a nerve-tissue tumor composed of astrocytes

Benign

be*nign
Pronunciation: \bi-ˈnīn\


Function: adjective

1: of a mild type or character that does not threaten health or life <benign malaria> <a benign tumor> compare malignant 1
2: having a good prognosis : responding favorably to treatment <a benign psychosis>

Biliary

bil*i*ary
Pronunciation: \ˈbil-ē-ˌer-ē\


Function: adjective

1: of, relating to, or conveying bile <biliary stasis>
2: affecting the bile-conveying structures <biliary disorders>

Biopsy

1bi*op*sy
Pronunciation: \ˈbī-ˌäp-sē\


Function: noun
pl -sies
: the removal and examination of tissue, cells, or fluids from the living body

Birth Control

birth control
Function: noun

1: control of the number of children born esp. by preventing or lessening the frequency of conception : see: contraception
2: contraceptive devices or preparations

Blood Sugar

blood sugar
Function: noun
: the glucose in the blood; also: its concentration (as in milligrams per 100 milliliters)

Blood-brain Barrier

blood–brain barrier
Function: noun
: a naturally occurring barrier created by the modification of brain capillaries (as by reduction in fenestration and formation of tight cell-to-cell contacts) that prevents many substances from leaving the blood and crossing the capillary walls into the brain tissues abbr. BBB

Botox

Bo*tox
Pronunciation: \ˈbō-ˌtäks\



Function: trademark
used for a preparation of botulinum toxin type A

Brachytherapy

brachy*ther*a*py
Pronunciation: \-ˈther-ə-pē\


Function: noun
pl -pies
: radiotherapy in which the source of radiation is placed (as by implantation) in or close to the area being treated

Brain Stem

brain stem
Pronunciation: \-ˌstem\


Function: noun
: the part of the brain composed of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata and connecting the spinal cord with the forebrain and cerebrum

Bronchial

bron*chi*al
Pronunciation: \ˈbräŋ-kē-əl\


Function: adjective
: of or relating to the bronchi or their ramifications in the lungs

Bronchoscopy

bron*chos*co*py
Pronunciation: \brän-ˈkäs-kə-pē, bräŋ-\


Function: noun
pl -pies
: the use of a bronchoscope in the examination or treatment of the bronchi

CT Scan

CT scan
Pronunciation: \(ˈ)sē-ˈtē-\


Function: noun
: see: cat scan

Cancer

can*cer
Pronunciation: \ˈkan(t)-sər\


Function: noun

1: a malignant tumor of potentially unlimited growth that expands locally by invasion and systemically by metastasis
2: an abnormal state marked by a cancer

Carcinogen

car*cin*o*gen
Pronunciation: \kär-ˈsin-ə-jən, ˈkärs-ən-ə-ˌjen\


Function: noun
: a substance or agent causing cancer

Celiac Disease

celiac disease
Function: noun
: a chronic hereditary intestinal disorder in which an inability to absorb the gliadin portion of gluten results in the gliadin triggering an immune response that damages the intestinal mucosa —called also celiac sprue, gluten-sensitive enteropathy, nontropical sprue, sprue

Cerebral

ce*re*bral
Pronunciation: \sə-ˈrē-brəl, ˈser-ə-\


Function: adjective

1: of or relating to the brain or the intellect
2: of, relating to, affecting, or being the cerebrum <cerebral blood flow> <cerebral toxoplasmosis>

Cervical

cer*vi*cal
Pronunciation: \ˈsər-vi-kəl, Brit usu sər-ˈvī-kəl\


Function: adjective
: of or relating to a neck or cervix <cervical cancer>

Chemotherapy

che*mo*ther*a*py
Pronunciation: \-ˈther-ə-pē\


Function: noun
pl -pies
: the use of chemical agents in the treatment or control of disease or mental disorder

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Function: noun
: lymphocytic leukemia that is marked by an abnormal increase in the number of mature lymphocytes and esp. B cells, that is characterized by slow onset and progression of symptoms which include anemia, pallor, fatigue, appetite loss, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen, and that occurs esp. in older adults abbr. CLLcompare acute lymphocytic leukemia

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

chronic myelogenous leukemia
Function: noun
: myelogenous leukemia that is marked by an abnormal increase in mature and immature granulocytes (as neutrophils, eosinophils, and myelocytes) esp. in bone marrow and blood, that is characterized by fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, spleen and liver enlargement, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and ultimately a dangerous increase in blast cells and esp. myeloblasts and lymphoblasts, that occurs esp. in adults, and that is associated with the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome abbr. CML—called also chronic myelocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, compare acute myelogenous leukemia

Cirrhosis

cir*rho*sis
Pronunciation: \sə-ˈrō-səs\



Function: noun
pl -rho*ses
Pronunciation: \-ˌsēz\

: widespread disruption of normal liver structure by fibrosis and the formation of regenerative nodules that is caused by any of various chronic progressive conditions affecting the liver (as long-term alcohol abuse or hepatitis) see biliary cirrhosis

Collagen

col*la*gen
Pronunciation: \ˈkäl-ə-jən\



Function: noun
: an insoluble fibrous protein of vertebrates that is the chief constituent of the fibrils of connective tissue (as in skin and tendons) and of the organic substance of bones and yields gelatin and glue on prolonged heating with water

Colonoscopy

co*lo*nos*co*py
Pronunciation: \ˌkō-lə-ˈnäs-kə-pē, ˌkäl-ə-\


Function: noun
pl -pies
: endoscopic examination of the colon <transabdominal colonoscopy with a sigmoidoscope via colotomy>

Common Bile Duct

common bile duct
Function: noun
: the duct formed by the union of the hepatic and cystic ducts and opening into the duodenum —called also ductus choledochus

Cone

cone
Pronunciation: \ˈkōn\


Function: noun

1: a solid having a circular base and sides that slope evenly to a point
2 a: any of the conical photosensitive receptor cells of the vertebrate retina that function in color vision compare rod
b: any of a family (Conidae) of numerous somewhat conical tropical gastropod mollusks that include a few highly poisonous forms see conus
3: a cusp of a tooth esp. in the upper jaw

Conization

con*iza*tion
Pronunciation: \ˌkō-nə-ˈzā-shən, ˌkän-ə-\


Function: noun
: the electrosurgical excision of a cone of tissue from a diseased uterine cervix

Craniotomy

cra*ni*ot*o*my
Pronunciation: \ˌkrā-nē-ˈät-ə-mē\


Function: noun
pl -mies

1: the operation of cutting or crushing the fetal head to effect delivery <fetal craniotomies…performed to save the life of the mother R. E. Frisch>
2: surgical opening of the skull

Cryosurgery

cryo*sur*gery
Pronunciation: \ˌkrī-ō-ˈsərj-(ə-)rē\


Function: noun
pl -ger*ies
: surgery in which diseased or abnormal tissue (as a tumor or wart) is destroyed or removed by freezing (as by the use of liquid nitrogen)

Cystectomy

cys*tec*to*my
Pronunciation: \sis-ˈtek-tə-mē\


Function: noun
pl -mies

1: the surgical excision of a cyst <ovarian cystectomy>
2: the removal of all or a portion of the urinary bladder

Cystoscopy

cys*tos*co*py
Pronunciation: \sis-ˈtäs-kə-pē\
Function: noun
1: the use of a cystoscope to examine the bladder

Dermabrasion

derm*abra*sion
Pronunciation: \ˌdər-mə-ˈbrā-zhən\



Function: noun
: surgical removal of skin blemishes or imperfections (as scars or tattoos) by abrasion (as with sandpaper or wire brushes)

Diarrhea

di*ar*rhea
Function: noun
: abnormally frequent intestinal evacuations with more or less fluid stools

Diathermy

dia*ther*my
Pronunciation: \ˈdī-ə-ˌthər-mē\


Function: noun
pl -mies
: the generation of heat in tissue by electric currents for medical or surgical purposes —called also endothermy, see electrocoagulation shortwave diathermy

Differentiation

dif*fer*en*ti*a*tion
Pronunciation: \-ˌren-chē-ˈā-shən\


Function: noun

1 a: the act of describing a thing by giving its differentia
b: the enhancement of microscopically visible differences between tissue or cell parts by partial selective decolorization or removal of excess stain (as in regressive staining)
c: the development of a discriminating conditioned response with a positive response to one stimulus and absence of the response on the application of similar but discriminably different stimuli
2 a: modification of different parts of the body for performance of particular functions; also: specialization of parts or organs in the course of evolution
b: the sum of the developmental processes whereby apparently unspecialized cells, tissues, and structures attain their adult form and function compare determination 2

Dilation And Curettage

dilation and curettage
Function: noun
: a medical procedure in which the uterine cervix is dilated and a curette is inserted into the uterus to scrape away the endometrium (as for the diagnosis or treatment of abnormal bleeding or for surgical abortion during the early part of the second trimester of pregnancy) —called also D&C

Disseminated

dis*sem*i*nat*ed
Pronunciation: \dis-ˈem-ə-ˌnāt-əd\


Function: adjective
: widely dispersed in a tissue, organ, or the entire body <disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis> <disseminated gonococcal disease>

Dysplasia

dys*pla*sia
Pronunciation: \dis-ˈplā-zh(ē-)ə\


Function: noun

1: variation in somatotype (as in degree of ectomorphy, endomorphy, or mesomorphy) from one part of a human body to another
2: abnormal growth or development (as of organs or cells); broadly: abnormal anatomic structure due to such growth

Emphysema

em*phy*se*ma
Pronunciation: \ˌem(p)-fə-ˈzē-mə, -ˈsē-\
Function: noun
1: a condition characterized by air-filled expansions in interstitial or subcutaneous tissues; specif: a condition of the lung that is marked by distension and eventual rupture of the alveoli with progressive loss of pulmonary elasticity, that is accompanied by shortness of breath with or without cough, and that may lead to impairment of heart action

Endocrine Gland

endocrine gland
Function: noun
: a gland (as the thyroid or the pituitary) that produces an endocrine secretion —called also ductless gland, gland of internal secretion

Endometriosis

en*do*me*tri*osis
Pronunciation: \ˌen-dō-ˌmē-trē-ˈō-səs\
Function: noun
1: the presence and growth of functioning endometrial tissue in places other than the uterus that often results in severe pain and infertility see adenomyosis

Endometrium

en*do*me*tri*um
Pronunciation: \-ˈmē-trē-əm\


Function: noun
pl -tria
Pronunciation: \-trē-ə\
: the mucous membrane lining the uterus that is composed of three layers see stratum basale stratum compactum stratum spongiosum

Endoscope

en*do*scope
Pronunciation: \ˈen-də-ˌskōp\


Function: noun
: an illuminated usu. fiber-optic flexible or rigid tubular instrument for visualizing the interior of a hollow organ or part (as the bladder or esophagus) for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes that typically has one or more channels to enable passage of instruments (as forceps or scissors)

Estrogen

es*tro*gen
Pronunciation: \ˈes-trə-jən\


Function: noun
: any of various natural steroids (as estradiol) that are formed from androgen precursors, that are secreted chiefly by the ovaries, placenta, adipose tissue, and testes, and that stimulate the development of female secondary sex characteristics and promote the growth and maintenance of the female reproductive system; also: any of various synthetic or semisynthetic steroids (as ethinyl estradiol) that mimic the physiological effect of natural estrogens

FOBT

FOBT
Function: abbreviation
fecal occult blood test; fecal occult blood testing

Fallopian Tube

fallopian tube
Function: noun
often cap F: either of the pair of tubes that carry the eggs from the ovary to the uterus —called also uterine tube

Fibroadenoma

fi*bro*ad*e*no*ma
Pronunciation: \ˌfī-(ˌ)brō-ˌad-ən-ˈō-mə\


Function: noun
pl -mas
also -ma*ta
Pronunciation: \-mət-ə\
: adenoma with a large amount of fibrous tissue

Gastrectomy

gas*trec*to*my
Pronunciation: \ga-ˈstrek-tə-mē\


Function: noun
pl -mies
: surgical removal of all or part of the stomach

Gene Therapy

gene therapy
Function: noun
: the insertion of usu. genetically altered genes into cells esp. to replace defective genes in the treatment of genetic disorders or to provide a specialized disease-fighting function (as the destruction of tumor cells)

Genital

gen*i*tal
Pronunciation: \ˈjen-ə-təl\


Function: adjective

1: see: generative
2: of, relating to, or being a sexual organ
3 a: of, relating to, or characterized by the stage of psychosexual development in psychoanalytic theory following the latency period and during which oral and anal impulses are subordinated to adaptive interpersonal mechanisms
b: of, relating to, or characterized by a personality in the genital stage of psychosexual development esp. as typified by normal sexual desires and by concern for the happiness and pleasures of others compare anal 2 oral 3

Glucagon

glu*ca*gon
Pronunciation: \ˈglü-kə-ˌgän\


Function: noun
: a protein hormone that is produced esp. by the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and that promotes an increase in the sugar content of the blood by increasing the rate of breakdown of glycogen in the liver —called also hyperglycemic factor, hyperglycemic-glycogenolytic factor

HPV

HPV
Pronunciation: \ˌāch-(ˌ)pē-ˈvē\


Function: noun
: see: human papillomavirus

Hairy Cell Leukemia

hairy cell leukemia
Function: noun
: a chronic leukemia that is usu. of B cell origin and is characterized by malignant cells with a ciliated appearance that replace bone marrow and infiltrate the spleen causing splenomegaly

Hematuria

he*ma*tu*ria
Function: noun
: the presence of blood or blood cells in the urine

Hormone

hor*mone
Pronunciation: \ˈhor-ˌmōn\


Function: noun

1 a: a product of living cells that circulates in body fluids (as blood) or sap and produces a specific often stimulatory effect on the activity of cells usu. remote from its point of origin —called also internal secretion, see plant hormone
b: a synthetic substance that acts like a hormone
2: see: sex hormone

Hydrencephalus

hy*dren*ceph*a*lus
Pronunciation: \-ˈsef-ə-ləs\


Function: noun
pl -li
Pronunciation: \-ˌlī\
: see: hydrocephalus

Hyperplasia

hy*per*pla*sia
Pronunciation: \ˌhī-pər-ˈplā-zh(ē-)ə\


Function: noun
: an abnormal or unusual increase in the elements composing a part (as cells composing a tissue) see benign prostatic hyperplasia

Hysterectomy

hys*ter*ec*to*my
Pronunciation: \ˌhis-tə-ˈrek-tə-mē\


Function: noun
pl -mies
: surgical removal of the uterus see ovariohysterectomy panhysterectomy radical hysterectomy supracervical hysterectomy

IVP

IVP
Function: abbreviation
intravenous pyelogram

Immunotherapy

im*mu*no*ther*a*py
Pronunciation: \-ˈther-ə-pē\


Function: noun
pl -pies
: treatment of or prophylaxis against disease by attempting to produce active or passive immunity —called also immune therapy

Intravenous Pyelogram

intravenous pyelogram
Function: noun
: a pyelogram in which radiographic visualization is obtained after intravenous administration of a radiopaque medium which collects in and is excreted by the kidneys

Irradiation

ir*ra*di*a*tion
Pronunciation: \ir-ˌād-ē-ˈā-shən\


Function: noun

1 a: the radiation of a physiologically active agent from a point of origin within the body; esp: the spread of a nervous impulse beyond the usual conduction path
b: apparent enlargement of a light or bright object or surface when displayed against a dark background
2 a: exposure to radiation (as ultraviolet light, X-rays, or alpha particles)
b: application of radiation (as X-rays or gamma rays) esp. for therapeutic purposes
3: see: irradiance

Laparoscopy

lap*a*ros*co*py
Pronunciation: \ˌlap-ə-ˈräs-kə-pē\


Function: noun
pl -pies

1: visual examination of the inside of the abdomen by means of a laparoscope —called also peritoneoscopy
2: an operation (as tubal ligation or gallbladder removal) involving laparoscopy

Leukocyte

leu*ko*cyte
Function: noun

1: see: white blood cell
2: a cell (as a macrophage) of the tissues comparable to or derived from a leukocyte

Lobectomy

lo*bec*to*my
Pronunciation: \lō-ˈbek-tə-mē\


Function: noun
pl -mies
: surgical removal of a lobe of an organ (as a lung) or gland (as the thyroid); specif: excision of a lobe of the lung compare lobotomy

Lubricant

1lu*bri*cant
Pronunciation: \ˈlü-bri-kənt\


Function: adjective
: serving to lubricate a surface or part

Lumpectomy

lump*ec*to*my
Pronunciation: \ˌləm-ˈpek-tə-mē\


Function: noun
pl -mies
: excision of a breast tumor with a limited amount of associated tissue —called also tylectomy, compare quadrantectomy

Lymph Nodule

lymph nodule
Function: noun
: a small simple lymph node

Lymphedema

lymph*ede*ma
Function: noun
: edema due to faulty lymphatic drainage

MRI

MRI
Pronunciation: \ˌem-(ˌ)är-ˈī\


Function: noun
: see: magnetic resonance imaging; also: a procedure in which magnetic resonance imaging is used

Malignant

ma*lig*nant
Pronunciation: \mə-ˈlig-nənt\


Function: adjective

1: tending to produce death or deterioration <malignant malaria> ; esp: tending to infiltrate, metastasize, and terminate fatally <malignant tumors> compare benign 1
2: of unfavorable prognosis : not responding favorably to treatment <psychotic reactions with a malignant trend>

Mastectomy

mas*tec*to*my
Pronunciation: \ma-ˈstek-tə-mē\


Function: noun
pl -mies
: surgical removal of all or part of the breast and sometimes associated lymph nodes and muscles see modified radical mastectomy partial mastectomy radical mastectomy simple mastectomy

Melanoma

mel*a*no*ma
Pronunciation: \ˌmel-ə-ˈnō-mə\


Function: noun
pl -mas
also -ma*ta
Pronunciation: \-mət-ə\

1: a benign or malignant skin tumor containing dark pigment
2: a tumor of high malignancy that starts in melanocytes of normal skin or moles and metastasizes rapidly and widely —called also malignant melanoma, melanocarcinoma, melanoepithelioma, melanosarcoma

Menopause

meno*pause
Pronunciation: \ˈmen-ə-ˌpoz, ˈmēn-\



Function: noun

1 a (1): the natural cessation of menstruation occurring usu. between the ages of 45 and 55 with a mean in Western cultures of approximately 51
(2): the physiological period in the life of a woman in which such cessation and the accompanying regression of ovarian function occurs —called also climacteric, compare perimenopause
b: cessation of menstruation from other than natural causes (as from surgical removal of the ovaries)
2: see: andropause

Mesothelioma

me*so*the*li*o*ma
Pronunciation: \ˌmez-ə-ˌthē-lē-ˈō-mə, ˌmēz-, ˌmēs-, ˌmes-\


Function: noun
pl -mas
also -ma*ta
Pronunciation: \-mət-ə\
: a tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (as that lining the peritoneum or pleura)

Metastasis

me*tas*ta*sis
Pronunciation: \mə-ˈtas-tə-səs\


Function: noun
pl -ta*ses
Pronunciation: \-ˌsēz\

1 a: change of position, state, or form
b: the spread of a disease-producing agency (as cancer cells or bacteria) from the initial or primary site of disease to another part of the body <metastases of breast cancer to bone Medical Physics> ; also: the process by which such spreading occurs
2: a secondary malignant tumor resulting from metastasis

Mucus

mu*cus
Pronunciation: \ˈmyü-kəs\



Function: noun
: a viscid slippery secretion that is usu. rich in mucins and is produced by mucous membranes which it moistens and protects

Muscularis

mus*cu*la*ris
Pronunciation: \ˌməs-kyə-ˈlar-əs\


Function: noun

1: the smooth muscular layer of the wall of various more or less contractile organs (as the bladder)
2: the thin layer of smooth muscle that forms part of a mucous membrane (as in the esophagus)

Mycosis Fungoides

mycosis fun*goi*des
Pronunciation: \-fəŋ-ˈgoid-ˌēz\


Function: noun
: a form of lymphoma characterized by a chronic patchy red scaly irregular and often eczematous dermatitis that progresses over a period of years to form elevated plaques and then tumors

Myelin

my*e*lin
Pronunciation: \ˈmī-ə-lən\


Function: noun
: a soft white somewhat fatty material that forms a thick myelin sheath about the protoplasmic core of a myelinated nerve fiber

Myelogram

my*e*lo*gram
Pronunciation: \ˈmī-ə-lə-ˌgram\


Function: noun

1: a differential study of the cellular elements present in bone marrow usu. made on material obtained by sternal biopsy
2: a radiograph of the spinal cord made by myelography

Needle Biopsy

needle biopsy
Function: noun
: any of several methods (as fine needle aspiration or core biopsy) for obtaining a sample of cells or tissue by inserting a hollow needle through the skin and withdrawing the sample from the tissue or organ to be examined

Nodule

nod*ule
Pronunciation: \ˈnäj-(ˌ)ü(ə)l\


Function: noun
: a small mass of rounded or irregular shape: as
a: a small abnormal knobby bodily protuberance (as a tumorous growth or a calcification near an arthritic joint)
b: the nodulus of the cerebellum

Oophorectomy

oo*pho*rec*to*my
Pronunciation: \ˌō-ə-fə-ˈrek-tə-mē\


Function: noun
pl -mies
: the surgical removal of an ovary —called also ovariectomy

Oral Contraceptive

oral contraceptive
Function: noun
: see: birth control pill

Ostomy

os*to*my
Pronunciation: \ˈäs-tə-mē\


Function: noun
pl -mies
: an operation (as a colostomy, ileostomy, or urostomy) to create an artificial passage for bodily elimination

Peripheral Neuropathy

peripheral neuropathy
Function: noun
: a disease or degenerative state (as polyneuropathy) of the peripheral nerves in which motor, sensory, or vasomotor nerve fibers may be affected and which is marked by muscle weakness and atrophy, pain, and numbness

Photodynamic

pho*to*dy*nam*ic
Pronunciation: \-dī-ˈnam-ik\



Function: adjective
: of, relating to, or having the property of intensifying or inducing a toxic reaction to light (as the destruction of cancer cells stained with a light-sensitive dye) in a living system <photodynamic action> <photodynamic therapy>

Pigmentation

pig*men*ta*tion
Pronunciation: \ˌpig-mən-ˈtā-shən, -ˌmen-\


Function: noun
: coloration with or deposition of pigment; esp: an excessive deposition of bodily pigment

Pituitary

1pi*tu*i*tary
Pronunciation: \pə-ˈt(y)ü-ə-ˌter-ē\


Function: adjective

1: of or relating to the pituitary gland
2: caused or characterized by secretory disturbances of the pituitary gland <a pituitary[1] dwarf>

Polyp

pol*yp
Pronunciation: \ˈpäl-əp\


Function: noun
: a projecting mass of swollen and hypertrophied or tumorous membrane (as in the nasal cavity or the intestine) —called also polypus

Precancerous

pre*can*cer*ous
Pronunciation: \-ˈkan(t)s-(ə-)rəs\


Function: adjective
: tending to become cancerous <a precancerous lesion>

Progesterone

pro*ges*ter*one
Pronunciation: \prō-ˈjes-tə-ˌrōn\


Function: noun
: a female steroid sex hormone C21H30O2 that is secreted by the corpus luteum to prepare the endometrium for implantation and later by the placenta during pregnancy to prevent rejection of the developing embryo or fetus; also: a synthetic steroid resembling progesterone in action

Prognosis

prog*no*sis
Pronunciation: \präg-ˈnō-səs\


Function: noun
pl -no*ses
Pronunciation: \-ˌsēz\

1: the act or art of foretelling the course of a disease
2: the prospect of survival and recovery from a disease as anticipated from the usual course of that disease or indicated by special features of the case <the prognosis is poor because of the accompanying cardiovascular disease P. A. Mead et al>

Prostate-specific Antigen

prostate–specific antigen
Function: noun
: a protease that is secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate and is used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer since its concentration in the blood serum tends to be proportional to the clinical stage of the disease abbr. PSA

Prostatectomy

pros*ta*tec*to*my
Pronunciation: \ˌpräs-tə-ˈtek-tə-mē\


Function: noun
pl -mies
: surgical removal or resection of the prostate gland

Radiation Therapy

radiation therapy
Function: noun
: see: radiotherapy

Remission

re*mis*sion
Pronunciation: \ri-ˈmish-ən\


Function: noun
: a state or period during which the symptoms of a disease are abated <cancer in remission after treatment> compare arrest cure 1 intermission

Scar

1scar
Pronunciation: \ˈskär\


Function: noun

1: a mark left (as in the skin) by the healing of injured tissue
2: a lasting emotional injury <psychological scar[1]s>

Scrotum

scro*tum
Pronunciation: \ˈskrōt-əm\



Function: noun
pl scro*ta
Pronunciation: \-ə\>
or scrotums
: the external sac that in most mammals contains the testes

Sebaceous Gland

sebaceous gland
Function: noun
: any of the small sacculated glands lodged in the substance of the derma, usu. opening into the hair follicles, and secreting an oily or greasy material composed in great part of fat which softens and lubricates the hair and skin

Secondhand Smoke

sec*ond*hand smoke
Pronunciation: \ˌsek-ən(d)-ˌhan(d)-\


Function: noun
: tobacco smoke that is exhaled by a smoker or is given off by burning tobacco (as of a cigarette) and is inhaled by persons nearby —called also passive smoke

Seminal Vesicle

seminal vesicle
Function: noun
: either of a pair of glandular pouches that lie one on either side of the male reproductive tract and that in human males secrete a sugar- and protein-containing fluid into the ejaculatory duct

Serosa

se*ro*sa
Pronunciation: \sə-ˈrō-zə\


Function: noun
pl -sas
also -sae
Pronunciation: \-zē\
: a usu. enclosing serous membrane <the peritoneal serosa>

Shunt

1shunt
Pronunciation: \ˈshənt\


Function: transitive verb
: to divert by or as if by a shunt; esp: to divert (blood) from one part to another by a surgical shunt

Sigmoid Colon

sigmoid colon
Function: noun
: the contracted and crooked part of the colon immediately above the rectum —called also pelvic colon, sigmoid flexure

Sigmoidoscopy

sig*moid*os*co*py
Pronunciation: \ˌsig-ˌmoi-ˈdäs-kə-pē\


Function: noun
pl -pies
: the process of using a sigmoidoscope —called also proctosigmoidoscopy

Stem Cell

stem cell
Pronunciation: \ˈstem-\


Function: noun
: an unspecialized cell that gives rise to differentiated cells <hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow>

Stoma

sto*ma
Pronunciation: \ˈstō-mə\


Function: noun
pl -mas

1: any of various small simple bodily openings esp. in a lower animal
2: an artificial permanent opening esp. in the abdominal wall made in surgical procedures <a colostomy stoma>

Testosterone

tes*tos*ter*one
Pronunciation: \te-ˈstäs-tə-ˌrōn\



Function: noun
: a male hormone that is a crystalline hydroxy steroid ketone C19H28O2 produced primarily by the testes or made synthetically and that is the main androgen responsible for inducing and maintaining male secondary sex characteristics

Thyroid Gland

thyroid gland
Function: noun
: see: thyroid 1

Thyroidectomy

thy*roid*ec*to*my
Pronunciation: \ˌthī-ˌroid-ˈek-tə-mē, -rəd-\


Function: noun
pl -mies
: surgical excision of thyroid gland tissue

Ultrasonography

ul*tra*so*nog*ra*phy
Pronunciation: \-fē\


Function: noun
pl -phies
: see: ultrasound 2

Ultrasound

1ul*tra*sound
Pronunciation: \ˈəl-trə-ˌsaund\


Function: noun

1: vibrations of the same physical nature as sound but with frequencies above the range of human hearing compare infrasound
2: the diagnostic or therapeutic use of ultrasound and esp. a noninvasive technique involving the formation of a two-dimensional image used for the examination and measurement of internal body structures and the detection of bodily abnormalities —called also echography, sonography, ultrasonography
3: a diagnostic examination using ultrasound

Ultraviolet

1ul*tra*vi*o*let
Pronunciation: \ˌəl-trə-ˈvī-(ə-)lət\


Function: adjective

1: situated beyond the visible spectrum at its violet end used of radiation having a wavelength shorter than wavelengths of visible light and longer than those of X-rays
2: relating to, producing, or employing ultraviolet radiation

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