What is hepatitis?

The liver is one of the organs that helps with digestion but is not part of the digestive tract. It is the largest organ in the body and carries out many important functions, such as making bile, changing food into energy, and cleaning alcohol and poisons from the blood.

Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver that sometimes causes permanent damage. It is caused by viruses, bacteria, certain medications, or alcohol. It may also be caused by certain diseases such as: autoimmune diseases, metabolic diseases, and congenital (present at birth) abnormalities (biliary atresia, Wilson's disease). Generally, symptoms of hepatitis include fever, jaundice, and an enlarged liver. There are several types of hepatitis.

What is hepatitis A?

Hepatitis A is a highly contagious and sometimes serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus. Once called infectious hepatitis, today it is more commonly known as hepatitis A. Approximately one-third of Americans have been exposed to hepatitis A.

Hepatitis A does not result in chronic infection, but complete recovery from hepatitis A can be slow. In adult patients with hepatitis A, the illness may last for at least one month, with recovery taking up to six months. Hepatitis A rates in the United States have declined by 92 percent since the vaccine (hepatitis A) first became available in 1995.

What are the symptoms of hepatitis A?

The following are the most common symptoms of hepatitis A. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms of hepatitis A often resemble flu-like symptoms. Symptoms may include:

In some adults, and in children (about 70 percent), especially in those younger than 6 years of age, there are often no symptoms. The symptoms of hepatitis A may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.

What causes hepatitis A?

This type of hepatitis is usually spread by fecal-oral contact or fecal-infected food and water, and may also be spread by blood-borne infection (which is rare). The following is a list of modes of transmission for hepatitis A:

  • consuming food made by someone who touched infected feces

  • drinking water that is contaminated by infected feces (a problem in developing countries with poor sewage removal)

  • touching an infected person's feces, which may occur with poor hand washing

  • outbreaks may occur in large childcare centers, especially when there are children in diapers

  • residents of American Indian reservations or Native Alaskan villages where hepatitis A may be more common

  • sexual contact with an infected person

Generally, casual contact in school or the workplace does not cause spread of the virus.

What are the risk factors for hepatitis A?

Children, teens, and adults who may be at high risk of hepatitis A include the following:

  • people traveling to areas of where hepatitis A is prevalent, including, but not limited to: Africa, Asia (except Japan), the Mediterranean basin, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central and South America, Mexico, and parts of the Caribbean

  • people living in or relocating to any community in the US or abroad with one or more recorded hepatitis A outbreaks within the past five years

  • military personnel

  • people who engage in high-risk sexual activity

  • users of illegal intravenous (IV) drugs

  • hemophiliacs and other recipients of therapeutic blood products

  • employees of daycare centers

  • institutional care workers

  • laboratory workers who handle live hepatitis A virus

  • people who handle primate animals that may be carrying the hepatitis A virus


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