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Ear, Nose and Throat Glossary

Terms used to explain Ear, Nose and Throat can sometimes be confusing. To help you fully understand the articles and features related to this very important health topic, we have compiled a glossary of terms that can help.

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Acute

acute
Pronunciation: \ə-ˈkyüt\


Function: adjective

1: sensing or perceiving accurately, clearly, effectively, or sensitively <acute vision>
2 a: characterized by sharpness or severity <acute pain> <an acute infection>
b (1): having a sudden onset, sharp rise, and short course <an acute disease> <an acute inflammation> compare chronic 2a
(2): see: acute care<an acute hospital>
c: lasting a short time <acute experiments>

Adenocarcinoma

ad*e*no*car*ci*no*ma
Pronunciation: \-ˌkärs-ən-ˈō-mə\


Function: noun
pl -mas
also -ma*ta
Pronunciation: \-mət-ə\
: a malignant tumor originating in glandular epithelium

Adenoidectomy

ad*e*noid*ec*to*my
Pronunciation: \ˌad-ən-ˌoi-ˈdek-tə-mē\


Function: noun
pl -mies
: surgical removal of the adenoids

Ageusia

ageu*sia
Pronunciation: \ə-ˈgyü-zē-ə, (ˈ)ā-, -ˈjü-, -sē-\


Function: noun
: the absence or impairment of the sense of taste

Allergen

al*ler*gen
Pronunciation: \ˈal-ər-jən\
Function: noun
1: a substance that induces allergy <inhaled allergens> <a suspected food allergen>

Allergy

al*ler*gy
Pronunciation: \ˈal-ər-jē\


Function: noun
pl -gies

1: altered bodily reactivity (as hypersensitivity) to an antigen in response to a first exposure <his bee-venom allergy may render a second sting fatal>
2: exaggerated or pathological reaction (as by sneezing, respiratory embarrassment, itching, or skin rashes) to substances, situations, or physical states that are without comparable effect on the average individual
3: medical practice concerned with allergies

Amoxicillin

amox*i*cil*lin
Function: noun
: a semisynthetic penicillin C16H19N3O5S derived from ampicillin see amoxil augmentin larotid

Analgesic

1an*al*ge*sic
Pronunciation: \-ˈjē-zik, -sik\


Function: adjective
: relating to, characterized by, or producing analgesia

Anosmia

an*os*mia
Pronunciation: \a-ˈnäz-mē-ə\


Function: noun
: loss or impairment of the sense of smell

Antibiotic

an*ti*bi*ot*ic
Pronunciation: \-bī-ˈät-ik; -bē-\
Function: adjective
1: tending to prevent, inhibit, or destroy life
2: of or relating to antibiotics or to antibiosis

Antihistamine

1an*ti*his*ta*mine
Pronunciation: \ˌant-i-ˈhis-tə-ˌmēn, ˌan-ˌtī-, -mən\


Function: adjective
: tending to block or counteract the physiological action of histamine <human blood lacks antihistamine[1] activity>

Asbestos

as*bes*tos
Pronunciation: \as-ˈbes-təs, az-\


Function: noun
: any of several minerals that readily separate into long flexible fibers, that have been implicated as causes of certain cancers, and that have been used esp. formerly as fireproof insulating materials

Atopy

at*o*py
Pronunciation: \ˈat-ə-pē\


Function: noun
pl -pies
: a prob. hereditary allergy characterized by symptoms (as asthma, hay fever, or hives) produced upon exposure esp. by inhalation to the exciting environmental antigen

Audiometer

au*di*om*e*ter
Pronunciation: \ˌod-ē-ˈäm-ət-ər\


Function: noun
: an instrument used in measuring the acuity of hearing —called also acoumeter

B Cell

B cell
Function: noun
: any of the lymphocytes that have antigen-binding antibody molecules on the surface, that comprise the antibody-secreting plasma cells when mature, and that in mammals differentiate in the bone marrow —called also B lymphocyte, compare t cell

Biopsy

1bi*op*sy
Pronunciation: \ˈbī-ˌäp-sē\


Function: noun
pl -sies
: the removal and examination of tissue, cells, or fluids from the living body

Bronchial

bron*chi*al
Pronunciation: \ˈbräŋ-kē-əl\


Function: adjective
: of or relating to the bronchi or their ramifications in the lungs

Bronchial Tube

bronchial tube
Function: noun
: a primary bronchus; also: any of its branches

Bronchiolitis

bron*chi*ol*itis
Pronunciation: \-ō-ˈlīt-əs\


Function: noun
: inflammation of the bronchioles

Bronchitis

bron*chi*tis
Pronunciation: \brän-ˈkīt-əs, bräŋ-\
Function: noun
1: acute or chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes; also: a disease marked by this

Bronchoscopy

bron*chos*co*py
Pronunciation: \brän-ˈkäs-kə-pē, bräŋ-\


Function: noun
pl -pies
: the use of a bronchoscope in the examination or treatment of the bronchi

Carbon Monoxide

carbon monoxide
Function: noun
: a colorless odorless very toxic gas CO that burns to carbon dioxide with a blue flame and is formed as a product of the incomplete combustion of carbon

Carcinogen

car*cin*o*gen
Pronunciation: \kär-ˈsin-ə-jən, ˈkärs-ən-ə-ˌjen\


Function: noun
: a substance or agent causing cancer

Cataract

cat*a*ract
Pronunciation: \ˈkat-ə-ˌrakt\


Function: noun
: a clouding of the lens of the eye or its surrounding transparent membrane that obstructs the passage of light

Chemotherapy

che*mo*ther*a*py
Pronunciation: \-ˈther-ə-pē\


Function: noun
pl -pies
: the use of chemical agents in the treatment or control of disease or mental disorder

Chronic

1chron*ic
Pronunciation: \ˈkrän-ik\


Function: adjective

1 a: marked by long duration, by frequent recurrence over a long time, and often by slowly progressing seriousness : not acute <chronic[1] indigestion> <her hallucinations became chronic[1]>
b: suffering from a disease or ailment of long duration or frequent recurrence <a chronic[1] arthritic> <chronic[1] sufferers from asthma>
2 a: having a slow progressive course of indefinite duration used esp. of degenerative invasive diseases, some infections, psychoses, and inflammations <chronic[1] heart disease> <chronic[1] arthritis> <chronic[1] tuberculosis> compare acute 2b(1)
b: infected with a disease-causing agent (as a virus) and remaining infectious over a long period of time but not necessarily expressing symptoms <chronic[1] carriers may remain healthy but still transmit the virus causing hepatitis B>

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Function: noun
1: see: cognitive therapy

Corticosteroid

cor*ti*co*ste*roid
Pronunciation: \ˌkort-i-kō-ˈsti(ə)r-ˌoid also -ˈste(ə)r-\



Function: noun
: any of various adrenal-cortex steroids (as corticosterone, cortisone, and aldosterone) that are divided on the basis of their major biological activity into glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids

Croup

croup
Pronunciation: \ˈkrüp\


Function: noun
: inflammation, edema, and subsequent obstruction of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi esp. of infants and young children that is typically caused by a virus and is marked by episodes of difficult breathing and hoarse metallic cough

Dander

dan*der
Pronunciation: \ˈdan-dər\


Function: noun
: see: dandruff; specif: minute scales from hair, feathers, or skin that may act as allergens

Decongestant

de*con*ges*tant
Pronunciation: \ˌdē-kən-ˈjes-tənt\
Function: noun
1: an agent that relieves congestion (as of mucous membranes)

Deviated Septum

de*vi*at*ed septum
Pronunciation: \ˌdē-vē-ˌāt-əd-\


Function: noun
: deviation of the nasal septum from its normal position that results from a developmental abnormality or trauma and may be asymptomatic or cause nasal obstruction and predispose to sinusitis and nosebleed

Dizziness

diz*zi*ness
Pronunciation: \ˈdiz-ē-nəs\


Function: noun
: the condition of being dizzy; esp: a sensation of unsteadiness accompanied by a feeling of movement within the head compare vertigo 1

Dust Mite

dust mite
Function: noun
: any of various mites (esp. family Pyroglyphidae) implicated in human allergic reactions to dust; esp: see: house-dust mite

Earache

ear*ache
Pronunciation: \ˈi(ə)r-ˌāk\


Function: noun
: an ache or pain in the ear —called also otalgia

Eardrum

ear*drum
Pronunciation: \-ˌdrəm\


Function: noun
: see: tympanic membrane

Echinacea

ech*i*na*cea
Pronunciation: \ˌek-i-ˈnā-sē-ə, -sh(ē-)ə\


Function: noun
: the dried rhizome, roots, or other part of any of three composite herbs (Echinacea angustifolia,E. pallida, and E. purpurea) that were formerly listed in the U.S. Pharmacopeia, that are now used primarily in dietary supplements and herbal remedies, and that are held to stimulate the immune system; also: any of these herbs see purple coneflower

Eczema

ec*ze*ma
Pronunciation: \ig-ˈzē-mə, ˈeg-zə-mə, ˈek-sə-\


Function: noun
: an inflammatory condition of the skin characterized by redness, itching, and oozing vesicular lesions which become scaly, crusted, or hardened

Effusion

ef*fu*sion
Pronunciation: \i-ˈfyü-zhən, e-\


Function: noun

1 a: the escape of a fluid from anatomical vessels by rupture or exudation
b: the flow of a gas through an aperture whose diameter is small as compared with the distance between the molecules of the gas
2: the fluid that escapes by extravasation see pleural effusion

Elimination

elim*i*na*tion
Pronunciation: \i-ˌlim-ə-ˈnā-shən\


Function: noun

1: the act of discharging or excreting waste products or foreign substances from the body
2eliminationspl: bodily discharges including urine, feces, and vomit
3: the removal from a molecule of the constituents of a simpler molecule <ethylene is formed by the elimination of water from ethanol>

Emphysema

em*phy*se*ma
Pronunciation: \ˌem(p)-fə-ˈzē-mə, -ˈsē-\
Function: noun
1: a condition characterized by air-filled expansions in interstitial or subcutaneous tissues; specif: a condition of the lung that is marked by distension and eventual rupture of the alveoli with progressive loss of pulmonary elasticity, that is accompanied by shortness of breath with or without cough, and that may lead to impairment of heart action

Eosinophil

1eo*sin*o*phil
Pronunciation: \ˌē-ə-ˈsin-ə-ˌfil\


Function: adjective
: see: eosinophilic 1

Ethmoid Sinus

ethmoid sinus
Function: noun
: either of two sinuses each of which is situated in a lateral part of the ethmoid bone alongside the nose and consists of ethmoidal air cells

Exhalation

ex*ha*la*tion
Pronunciation: \ˌeks-(h)ə-ˈlā-shən\


Function: noun

1: the action of forcing air out of the lungs
2: something (as the breath) that is exhaled or given off

Expectorant

1ex*pec*to*rant
Pronunciation: \ik-ˈspek-t(ə-)rənt\


Function: adjective
: having the activity of an expectorant

Frontal Sinus

frontal sinus
Function: noun
: either of two air spaces lined with mucous membrane each of which lies within the frontal bone above one of the orbits

Gene Therapy

gene therapy
Function: noun
: the insertion of usu. genetically altered genes into cells esp. to replace defective genes in the treatment of genetic disorders or to provide a specialized disease-fighting function (as the destruction of tumor cells)

Gingivitis

gin*gi*vi*tis
Pronunciation: \ˌjin-jə-ˈvīt-əs\


Function: noun
: inflammation of the gums

HEPA

HEPA
Pronunciation: \ˈhep-ə\


Function: adjective
Etymology: high efficiency particulate air
: being, using, or containing a filter usu. designed to remove 99.97% of airborne particles measuring 0.3 microns or greater in diameter passing through it <HEPA filters> <HEPA vacuum cleaners>

Hay Fever

hay fever
Pronunciation: \ˈhā-ˌfē-vər\


Function: noun
: an acute allergic reaction to pollen that is usu. seasonal and is marked by sneezing, nasal discharge and congestion, and itching and watering of the eyes —called also pollinosis

Heart Attack

heart attack
Function: noun
: an acute episode of heart disease marked by the death or damage of heart muscle due to insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle usu. as a result of a coronary thrombosis or a coronary occlusion and that is characterized esp. by chest pain —called also myocardial infarction, compare angina pectoris coronary insufficiency heart failure 1

Histamine

his*ta*mine
Pronunciation: \ˈhis-tə-ˌmēn, -mən\


Function: noun
: a compound C5H9N3 esp. of mammalian tissues that causes dilatation of capillaries, contraction of smooth muscle, and stimulation of gastric acid secretion, that is released during allergic reactions, and that is formed by decarboxylation of histidine

Hives

hives
Pronunciation: \ˈhīvz\


Function: noun plural but singular or plural in construction
: an allergic disorder marked by raised edematous red patches of skin or mucous membrane and usu. by intense itching and caused by contact with a specific precipitating factor (as a food, drug, or inhalant) either externally or internally —called also urticaria

Humidifier

hu*mid*i*fi*er
Pronunciation: \hyü-ˈmid-ə-ˌfī(-ə)r, yü-\
Function: noun
1: a device for supplying or maintaining humidity

Hygiene

hy*giene
Pronunciation: \ˈhī-ˌjēn also hī-ˈ\


Function: noun

1: a science of the establishment and maintenance of health see industrial hygiene mental hygiene
2: conditions or practices (as of cleanliness) conducive to health

Hypnosis

hyp*no*sis
Pronunciation: \hip-ˈnō-səs\


Function: noun
pl -no*ses
Pronunciation: \-ˌsēz\

1: a trancelike state of altered consciousness that resembles sleep but is induced by a person whose suggestions are readily accepted by the subject
2: any of various conditions that resemble sleep
3: see: hypnotism 1

Immunotherapy

im*mu*no*ther*a*py
Pronunciation: \-ˈther-ə-pē\


Function: noun
pl -pies
: treatment of or prophylaxis against disease by attempting to produce active or passive immunity —called also immune therapy

Inhaler

in*hal*er
Pronunciation: \in-ˈhā-lər\
Function: noun
1: a device by means of which usu. medicinal material is inhaled compare inhalator

Learn more: Using Inhalers
Insomnia

in*som*nia
Pronunciation: \in-ˈsäm-nē-ə\


Function: noun
: prolonged and usu. abnormal inability to obtain adequate sleep —called also agrypnia

Irritant

1ir*ri*tant
Pronunciation: \ˈir-ə-tənt\


Function: adjective
: causing irritation; specif: tending to produce inflammation

Leukotriene

leu*ko*tri*ene
Pronunciation: \ˌlü-kə-ˈtrī-ˌēn\


Function: noun
: any of a group of eicosanoids that are generated in basophils, mast cells, macrophages, and human lung tissue by lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxygenation esp. of arachidonic acid and that participate in allergic responses (as bronchoconstriction in asthma) see slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis

Lobectomy

lo*bec*to*my
Pronunciation: \lō-ˈbek-tə-mē\


Function: noun
pl -mies
: surgical removal of a lobe of an organ (as a lung) or gland (as the thyroid); specif: excision of a lobe of the lung compare lobotomy

Macular Degeneration

macular degeneration
Function: noun
: progressive deterioration of the macula lutea resulting in a gradual loss of the central part of the field of vision; esp: see: age-related macular degeneration

Mast Cell

mast cell
Pronunciation: \ˈmast-\


Function: noun
: a granulocyte that occurs esp. in connective tissue and has basophilic granules containing substances (as histamine and heparin) which mediate allergic reactions

Mesothelioma

me*so*the*li*o*ma
Pronunciation: \ˌmez-ə-ˌthē-lē-ˈō-mə, ˌmēz-, ˌmēs-, ˌmes-\


Function: noun
pl -mas
also -ma*ta
Pronunciation: \-mət-ə\
: a tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (as that lining the peritoneum or pleura)

Middle Meatus

middle meatus
Function: noun
: a curved anteroposterior passage in each nasal cavity that is situated below the middle nasal concha and extends along the entire superior border of the inferior nasal concha compare inferior meatus superior meatus

Mucus

mu*cus
Pronunciation: \ˈmyü-kəs\



Function: noun
: a viscid slippery secretion that is usu. rich in mucins and is produced by mucous membranes which it moistens and protects

Nausea

nau*sea
Pronunciation: \ˈno-zē-ə, -sē-ə; ˈno-zhə, -shə\


Function: noun
: a stomach distress with distaste for food and an urge to vomit

Nebulizer

neb*u*liz*er
Function: noun
: see: atomizer; specif: an atomizer equipped to produce an extremely fine spray for deep penetration of the lungs

Nicotine

nic*o*tine
Pronunciation: \ˈnik-ə-ˌtēn\


Function: noun
: a poisonous alkaloid C10H14N2 that is the chief active principle of tobacco and that is used as an insecticide

Ostium

os*ti*um
Pronunciation: \ˈäs-tē-əm\


Function: noun
pl os*tia
Pronunciation: \-tē-ə\
: a mouthlike opening in a bodily part (as a fallopian tube or a blood vessel) <stenosis of coronary ostiaR. L. Cecil & R. F. Loeb>

Otitis

oti*tis
Pronunciation: \ō-ˈtīt-əs\


Function: noun
pl otit*i*des
Pronunciation: \ō-ˈtit-ə-ˌdēz\
: inflammation of the ear

Otitis Externa

otitis ex*ter*na
Pronunciation: \-ek-ˈstər-nə\


Function: noun
: inflammation of the external auditory canal; specif: see: swimmer's ear

Otitis Media

otitis me*dia
Pronunciation: \-ˈmēd-ē-ə\


Function: noun
: acute or chronic inflammation of the middle ear; esp: an acute inflammation esp. in infants or young children that is caused by a virus or bacterium, usu. occurs as a complication of an upper respiratory infection, and is marked by earache, fever, hearing loss, and sometimes rupture of the tympanic membrane see serous otitis media

Otoscope

oto*scope
Pronunciation: \ˈōt-ə-ˌskōp\


Function: noun
: an instrument fitted with lighting and magnifying lens systems and used to facilitate visual examination of the auditory canal and eardrum

Patch Test

patch test
Function: noun
: a test for determining allergic sensitivity that is made by applying to the unbroken skin small pads soaked with the allergen to be tested and that indicates sensitivity when irritation develops at the point of application compare intradermal test prick test scratch test

Peak Flow Meter

peak flow meter
Pronunciation: \ˌpēk-ˈflō-\


Function: noun
: a device that measures the maximum rate of air flow out of the lungs during forced expiration and that is used esp. for monitoring lung capacity of individuals with asthma (as to indicate bronchial narrowing) —called also peak expiratory flow meter

Peripheral Neuropathy

peripheral neuropathy
Function: noun
: a disease or degenerative state (as polyneuropathy) of the peripheral nerves in which motor, sensory, or vasomotor nerve fibers may be affected and which is marked by muscle weakness and atrophy, pain, and numbness

Plasma Cell

plasma cell
Function: noun
: a lymphocyte that is a mature antibody-secreting B cell

Pneumonia

pneu*mo*nia
Pronunciation: \n(y)u-ˈmō-nyə\
Function: noun
1: a disease of the lungs that is characterized esp. by inflammation and consolidation of lung tissue followed by resolution, is accompanied by fever, chills, cough, and difficulty in breathing, and is caused chiefly by infection see bronchopneumonia lobar pneumonia primary atypical pneumonia

Pollen

pol*len
Pronunciation: \ˈpäl-ən\


Function: noun
: a mass of male spores in a seed plant appearing usu. as a fine dust

Prednisone

pred*ni*sone
Pronunciation: \ˈpred-nə-ˌsōn also -ˌzōn\


Function: noun
: a glucocorticoid C21H26O5 that is a dehydrogenated analog of cortisone and is used as an anti-inflammatory agent, as an antineoplastic agent, and as an immunosuppressant

Prick Test

prick test
Pronunciation: \ˈprik-\


Function: noun
: a test for allergic susceptibility made by placing a drop of the allergy-producing substance on the skin and making breaks in the skin by lightly pricking the surface (as with a pin) compare intradermal test patch test scratch test

RSV

RSV
Function: abbreviation

1 respiratory syncytial virus
2 Rous sarcoma virus

Relapse

1re*lapse
Pronunciation: \ri-ˈlaps, ˈrē-ˌ\


Function: noun
: a recurrence of illness; esp: a recurrence of symptoms of a disease after a period of improvement <a relapse[1] after an 18-month remission M. T. Fosburg et al> compare recrudescence

Rhinitis

rhi*ni*tis
Pronunciation: \rī-ˈnīt-əs\


Function: noun
pl -nit*i*des
Pronunciation: \-ˈnit-ə-ˌdēz\
: inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose marked esp. by rhinorrhea, nasal congestion and itching, and sneezing; also: any of various conditions characterized by rhinitis see allergic rhinitis rhinitis medicamentosa rhinitis sicca vasomotor rhinitis

Rhinoscopy

rhi*nos*co*py
Pronunciation: \rī-ˈnäs-kə-pē\


Function: noun
pl -pies
: examination of the nasal passages

Secondhand Smoke

sec*ond*hand smoke
Pronunciation: \ˌsek-ən(d)-ˌhan(d)-\


Function: noun
: tobacco smoke that is exhaled by a smoker or is given off by burning tobacco (as of a cigarette) and is inhaled by persons nearby —called also passive smoke

Septoplasty

sep*to*plas*ty
Pronunciation: \ˈsep-tə-ˌplas-tē\


Function: noun
pl -ties
: surgical repair of the nasal septum

Sore Throat

sore throat
Function: noun
: painful throat due to inflammation of the fauces and pharynx

Sputum

spu*tum
Pronunciation: \ˈsp(y)üt-əm\


Function: noun
pl spu*ta
Pronunciation: \-ə\
: the matter discharged from the air passages in diseases of the lungs, bronchi, or upper respiratory tract that contains mucus and often pus, blood, fibrin, or bacterial products

Steroid

ste*roid
Pronunciation: \ˈsti(ə)r-ˌoid also ˈste(ə)r-\



Function: noun
: any of numerous natural or synthetic compounds containing a 17-carbon 4-ring system and including the sterols and various hormones and glycosides see anabolic steroid

Strep Throat

strep throat
Function: noun
: an inflammatory sore throat caused by hemolytic streptococci and marked by fever, prostration, and toxemia —called also septic sore throat, strep sore throat

Stroke

Pronunciation: \ˈstrōk\



Function: noun
1: sudden diminution or loss of consciousness, sensation, and voluntary motion caused by rupture or obstruction (as by a clot) of a blood vessel of the brain —called also apoplexy, brain attack, cerebral accident, cerebrovascular accident

Swine Flu

swine flu
Function: noun
: see: swine influenza

Theophylline

the*oph*yl*line
Pronunciation: \thē-ˈäf-ə-lən\


Function: noun
: a feebly basic bitter crystalline compound C7H8N4O2 that is present in small amounts in tea but is prepared chiefly by synthesis, that is isomeric with theobromine, and that is used in medicine often in the form of derivatives or in combination with other drugs esp. as a bronchodilator to relieve or prevent symptoms of asthma and bronchospasm associated with chronic bronchitis and emphysema

Turbinate

1tur*bi*nate
Pronunciation: \ˈtər-bə-nət, -ˌnāt\


Function: adjective
: of, relating to, or being a nasal concha

Vaccine

vac*cine
Pronunciation: \vak-ˈsēn, ˈvak-ˌ\


Function: noun

1: matter or a preparation containing the virus of cowpox used to vaccinate a person against smallpox
2: a preparation of killed microorganisms, living attenuated organisms, or living fully virulent organisms that is administered to produce or artificially increase immunity to a particular disease <chicken pox vaccine> ; also: a mixture of several such vaccines <measles-mumps-rubella vaccine>

Wheeze

1wheeze
Pronunciation: \ˈhwēz, ˈwēz\



Function: intransitive verb
wheezed
wheez*ing
: to breathe with difficulty usu. with a whistling sound

Withdrawal

with*draw*al
Pronunciation: \-ˈdro(ə-)l\


Function: noun

1 a: a pathological retreat from objective reality (as in some schizophrenic states)
b: social or emotional detachment
2 a: the discontinuance of administration or use of a drug
b: the syndrome of often painful physical and psychological symptoms that follows discontinuance of an addicting substance <a heroin addict going through withdrawal>
3: see: coitus interruptus

Zinc

zinc
Pronunciation: \ˈziŋk\


Function: noun
: a bluish white crystalline bivalent metallic element of low to intermediate hardness that is an essential micronutrient for both plants and animals symbol Znsee element table

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