Don't Confuse Dry Eye Syndrome With Allergies
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Your eyes are itchy, burning, and bothersome. You assume that your allergies are kicking up, so you use antihistamine eye drops. But instead of getting better, your eye symptoms only get worse. What’s going on?
It’s possible that what you thought were allergies is actually dry eye syndrome. Dry eye sufferers don’t produce tears in sufficient quantity or of good enough quality to keep their eyes comfortable and healthy. The symptoms of dry eye can resemble those of allergies, but the treatment is different. In fact, antihistamines and nasal decongestants, which ease allergy symptoms, actually make eye dryness worse.
These guidelines can help you tell the difference between eye allergies and dry eye syndrome. And that can help you find effective relief for your irritated eyes.
Similar but Different Symptoms
Although the symptoms of eye allergies and dry eye syndrome are similar, they’re not identical. Here’s what to look for:
Dry eye syndrome
Symptoms of dry eye include:
A gritty feeling as if something is in your eye
Eye stinging or burning
Stringy discharge from the eyes
Bouts of excessive watering after periods of a dry sensation
Eye pain and redness
These symptoms are sometimes brought on by menopause or diseases that affect tear production, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. They may also occur after taking medications that reduce tear secretion. These include antihistamines, decongestants, high blood pressure medicines, sleeping pills, anti-anxiety medicines, and pain relievers.
A dry, windy climate tends to make dry eyes worse. So do smoke and air conditioning, which speed up tear evaporation.
Symptoms of eye allergies include:
Eye stinging or burning
Watery discharge from the eyes
Sensitivity to light
These symptoms develop shortly after exposure to an allergen. The worst offenders are pollens and molds. People with these allergies may notice eye symptoms after spending time outside in the spring or fall. Those with allergies to animal dander or dust mites may notice that their symptoms get worse after brushing a pet or cleaning the house.
Eye allergies can occur alone or along with other allergy symptoms, such as a runny or stuffy nose, a scratchy throat, sneezing, and dark circles under the eyes.
Watery Eyes Can Be Dry, Too
Surprisingly, both allergies and dry eye syndrome can cause watery eyes at times. In the case of dry eye syndrome, poor-quality tears may not contain enough oil or mucus, which help hold tears in the eyes. When this happens, tears don’t stay in your eyes long enough to keep them feeling moist and comfortable. Eye irritation may prompt a temporary flood of tears, which overflow your eyes and start rolling down your cheeks.
When you have dry eye syndrome, these episodes of excessive watering follow periods of dry, scratchy, gritty-feeling eyes. In contrast, when you have allergies, your eyes may start watering after exposure to something you’re allergic to.
Guidelines are helpful. But telling eye allergies apart from dry eye syndrome can be tricky. See your physician to make sure you get the right diagnosis and treatment for you.
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- American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (http://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/allergies/eye-allergy.aspx);
- American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (http://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/allergies/rhinitis.aspx);
- American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (http://www.acaai.org/allergist/Resources/ask-allergist/Pages/signs-symptoms-eye-allergy.aspx);
- American Academy of Ophthalmology (http://www.geteyesmart.org/eyesmart/diseases/dry-eye.cfm);
- American Academy of Ophthalmology (http://www.geteyesmart.org/eyesmart/diseases/dry-eye-cause.cfm);
- National Eye Institute (http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/cornealdisease);