Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder X-ray

(KUB [Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder], KUB X-ray, Flat Plate of the Abdomen X-ray)

Procedure Overview

What is a kidneys, ureter, and bladder x-ray?

A kidney, ureter, and bladder (KUB) x-ray may be performed to assess the abdominal area for causes of abdominal pain, or to assess the organs and structures of the urinary and/or gastrointestinal (GI) system. A KUB x-ray may be the first diagnostic procedure used to assess the urinary system.

X-rays use invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs on film. X-rays are made by using external radiation to produce images of the body, its organs, and other internal structures for diagnostic purposes. X-rays pass through body tissues onto specially treated plates (similar to camera film) and a "negative" type picture is made (the more solid a structure is, the whiter it appears on the film).

Other related procedures that may be used to diagnose problems of the urinary organs of the abdomen include computed tomography (CT scan) of the kidney, kidney ultrasound, kidney scan, cystography, cystometry, cystoscopy, intravenous pyelogram, kidney biopsy, prostate ultrasound, retrograde cystography, retrograde pyelogram, uroflowmetry, and renal venogram. Please see these procedures for additional information.

How does the urinary system work?

The body takes nutrients from food and converts them to energy. After the body has taken the food that it needs, waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood.

The urinary system keeps chemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in balance, and removes a type of waste, called urea, from the blood. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys.

Urinary system parts and their functions:

  • two kidneys - a pair of purplish-brown organs located below the ribs toward the middle of the back. Their function is to:

    • remove liquid waste from the blood in the form of urine

    • keep a stable balance of salts and other substances in the blood

    • produce erythropoietin, a hormone that aids the formation of red blood cells

    • regulate blood pressure

  • The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries, called a glomerulus, and a small tube called a renal tubule. Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney.

  • two ureters - narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Muscles in the ureter walls continually tighten and relax forcing urine downward, away from the kidneys. If urine backs up, or is allowed to stand still, a kidney infection can develop. About every 10 to 15 seconds, small amounts of urine are emptied into the bladder from the ureters.

  • bladder - a triangle-shaped, hollow organ located in the lower abdomen. It is held in place by ligaments that are attached to other organs and the pelvic bones. The bladder's walls relax and expand to store urine, and contract and flatten to empty urine through the urethra. The typical healthy adult bladder can store up to two cups of urine for two to five hours.

  • two sphincter muscles - circular muscles that help keep urine from leaking by closing tightly like a rubber band around the opening of the bladder.

  • nerves in the bladder - alert a person when it is time to urinate, or empty the bladder.

  • urethra - the tube that allows urine to pass outside the body. The brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten, which squeezes urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincter muscles to relax to let urine exit the bladder through the urethra. When all the signals occur in the correct order, normal urination occurs.



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