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Mental Health and Behavior Glossary

Terms used to explain Mental Health and Behavior can sometimes be confusing. To help you fully understand the articles and features related to this very important health topic, we have compiled a glossary of terms that can help.

AA

AA
Function: abbreviation

1 achievement age
2 Alcoholics Anonymous

ADD

ADD
Function: abbreviation
attention deficit disorder

ADHD

ADHD
Function: abbreviation
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

ANS

ANS
Function: abbreviation
autonomic nervous system

Acute

acute
Pronunciation: \ə-ˈkyüt\


Function: adjective

1: sensing or perceiving accurately, clearly, effectively, or sensitively <acute vision>
2 a: characterized by sharpness or severity <acute pain> <an acute infection>
b (1): having a sudden onset, sharp rise, and short course <an acute disease> <an acute inflammation> compare chronic 2a
(2): see: acute care<an acute hospital>
c: lasting a short time <acute experiments>

Addiction

ad*dic*tion
Pronunciation: \ə-ˈdik-shən\


Function: noun
: compulsive physiological need for and use of a habit-forming substance (as heroin, nicotine, or alcohol) characterized by tolerance and by well-defined physiological symptoms upon withdrawal; broadly: persistent compulsive use of a substance known by the user to be physically, psychologically, or socially harmful compare habituation

Adrenal Gland

adrenal gland
Function: noun
: either of a pair of complex endocrine organs near the anterior medial border of the kidney consisting of a mesodermal cortex that produces glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and androgenic hormones and an ectodermal medulla that produces epinephrine and norepinephrine —called also adrenal, suprarenal gland

Agoraphobia

ag*o*ra*pho*bia
Pronunciation: \ˌag(-ə)-rə-ˈfō-bē-ə\


Function: noun
: abnormal fear of being helpless in a situation from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing that is characterized initially often by panic or anticipatory anxiety and finally by avoidance of open or public places

Agranulocytosis

agran*u*lo*cy*to*sis
Pronunciation: \ˌā-ˌgran-yə-lō-ˌsī-ˈtō-səs\



Function: noun

1: an acute febrile condition marked by severe depression of the granulocyte-producing bone marrow and by prostration, chills, swollen neck, and sore throat sometimes with local ulceration and believed to be basically a response to the side effects of certain drugs of the coal-tar series (as aminopyrine) —called also agranulocytic angina, granulocytopenia

Anorexia Nervosa

anorexia ner*vo*sa
Pronunciation: \-(ˌ)nər-ˈvō-sə, -zə\



Function: noun
: a serious eating disorder primarily of young women in their teens and early twenties that is characterized esp. by a pathological fear of weight gain leading to faulty eating patterns, malnutrition, and usu. excessive weight loss

Antidepressant

2antidepressant
Function: noun
: an antidepressant drug —called also energizer, psychic energizer, psychostimulant, compare tricyclic antidepressant

Antihistamine

2antihistamine
Function: noun
: any of various compounds that oppose the actions of histamine and are used esp. for treating allergic reactions (as hay fever), cold symptoms, and motion sickness

Anxiety

anx*i*ety
Pronunciation: \aŋ-ˈzī-ət-ē\


Function: noun
pl -eties

1 a: a painful or apprehensive uneasiness of mind usu. over an impending or anticipated ill
b: a cause of anxiety
2: an abnormal and overwhelming sense of apprehension and fear often marked by physiological signs (as sweating, tension, and increased pulse), by doubt concerning the reality and nature of the threat, and by self-doubt about one's capacity to cope with it

Anxiety Disorder

Function: noun
: any of various disorders (as panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, a phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder) in which anxiety is a predominant feature —called also anxiety neurosis, anxiety state

Apraxia

aprax*ia
Pronunciation: \(ˈ)ā-ˈprak-sē-ə\


Function: noun
: loss or impairment of the ability to execute complex coordinated movements without muscular or sensory impairment compare eupraxia

Arteriosclerosis

ar*te*rio*scle*ro*sis
Pronunciation: \är-ˌtir-ē-ō-sklə-ˈrō-səs\


Function: noun
pl -ro*ses
Pronunciation: \-ˌsēz\
: a chronic disease characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of the arterial walls with resulting loss of elasticity compare atherosclerosis

Attention

at*ten*tion
Pronunciation: \ə-ˈten-chən\


Function: noun

1: the act or state of attending : the application of the mind to any object of sense or thought
2 a: an organismic condition of selective awareness or perceptual receptivity; specif: the complex of neuromuscular adjustments that permit maximum excitability or responsiveness to a given class of stimuli
b: the process of focusing consciousness to produce greater vividness and clarity of certain of its contents relative to others

Audiologist

au*di*ol*o*gist
Pronunciation: \ˌod-ē-ˈäl-ə-jəst\


Function: noun
: a specialist in audiology

Autism

au*tism
Pronunciation: \ˈo-ˌtiz-əm\



Function: noun

1: a developmental disorder that appears by age three and that is variable in expression but is recognized and diagnosed by impairment of the ability to form normal social relationships, by impairment of the ability to communicate with others, and by stereotyped behavior patterns esp. as exhibited by a preoccupation with repetitive activities of restricted focus rather than with flexible and imaginative ones

BPH

BPH
Function: abbreviation
benign prostatic hyperplasia; benign prostatic hypertrophy

Beta-blocker

be*ta–block*er
Pronunciation: \-ˈbläk-ər\

Function: noun
: any of a group of drugs (as propranolol) that combine with and block the activity of a beta-receptor to decrease the heart rate and force of contractions and lower high blood pressure and that are used esp. to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, and ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias compare alpha-blocker

Bipolar Disorder

Function: noun
: any of several mood disorders characterized usu. by alternating episodes of depression and mania or by episodes of depression alternating with mild nonpsychotic excitement —called also bipolar affective disorder, bipolar illness, manic depression, manic-depressive psychosis, compare major depressive disorder

Bronchitis

bron*chi*tis
Pronunciation: \brän-ˈkīt-əs, bräŋ-\
Function: noun
1: acute or chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes; also: a disease marked by this

CT Scan

CT scan
Pronunciation: \(ˈ)sē-ˈtē-\


Function: noun
: see: cat scan

Carbon Monoxide

carbon monoxide
Function: noun
: a colorless odorless very toxic gas CO that burns to carbon dioxide with a blue flame and is formed as a product of the incomplete combustion of carbon

Cataract

cat*a*ract
Pronunciation: \ˈkat-ə-ˌrakt\


Function: noun
: a clouding of the lens of the eye or its surrounding transparent membrane that obstructs the passage of light

Cerebral

ce*re*bral
Pronunciation: \sə-ˈrē-brəl, ˈser-ə-\


Function: adjective

1: of or relating to the brain or the intellect
2: of, relating to, affecting, or being the cerebrum <cerebral blood flow> <cerebral toxoplasmosis>

Chemical Dependence

chemical dependence
Function: noun
: addiction to or dependence on drugs

Chronic

1chron*ic
Pronunciation: \ˈkrän-ik\


Function: adjective

1 a: marked by long duration, by frequent recurrence over a long time, and often by slowly progressing seriousness : not acute <chronic[1] indigestion> <her hallucinations became chronic[1]>
b: suffering from a disease or ailment of long duration or frequent recurrence <a chronic[1] arthritic> <chronic[1] sufferers from asthma>
2 a: having a slow progressive course of indefinite duration used esp. of degenerative invasive diseases, some infections, psychoses, and inflammations <chronic[1] heart disease> <chronic[1] arthritis> <chronic[1] tuberculosis> compare acute 2b(1)
b: infected with a disease-causing agent (as a virus) and remaining infectious over a long period of time but not necessarily expressing symptoms <chronic[1] carriers may remain healthy but still transmit the virus causing hepatitis B>

Cirrhosis

cir*rho*sis
Pronunciation: \sə-ˈrō-səs\



Function: noun
pl -rho*ses
Pronunciation: \-ˌsēz\

: widespread disruption of normal liver structure by fibrosis and the formation of regenerative nodules that is caused by any of various chronic progressive conditions affecting the liver (as long-term alcohol abuse or hepatitis) see biliary cirrhosis

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Function: noun
1: see: cognitive therapy

Cyclothymia

cy*clo*thy*mia
Pronunciation: \ˌsī-klə-ˈthī-mē-ə\


Function: noun
: a cyclothymic mood disorder

Delirium

de*lir*i*um
Pronunciation: \di-ˈlir-ē-əm\


Function: noun
: a mental disturbance characterized by confusion, disordered speech, and hallucinations

Delusion

de*lu*sion
Pronunciation: \di-ˈlü-zhən\



Function: noun

1. a: the act of deluding : the state of being deluded
b: an abnormal mental state characterized by the occurrence of psychotic delusions
2: a false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts and occurs in some psychotic states compare hallucination 1 illusion 2a

Denial

de*ni*al
Pronunciation: \di-ˈnī(-ə)l\


Function: noun
: a psychological defense mechanism in which confrontation with a personal problem or with reality is avoided by denying the existence of the problem or reality

Depressant

1de*pres*sant
Pronunciation: \-ənt\


Function: adjective
: tending to depress; esp: lowering or tending to lower functional or vital activity <a drug with a depressant[1] effect on heart rate>

Depression

de*pres*sion
Pronunciation: \di-ˈpresh-ən\


Function: noun

1: a displacement downward or inward <depression of the jaw>
2: an act of depressing or a state of being depressed: as
a (1): a state of feeling sad
(2): a psychoneurotic or psychotic disorder marked esp. by sadness, inactivity, difficulty with thinking and concentration, a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping, feelings of dejection and hopelessness, and sometimes suicidal thoughts or an attempt to commit suicide
b: a reduction in functional activity, amount, quality, or force <depression of autonomic function> <depression of red blood cells>

Detox

1de*tox
Pronunciation: \(ˈ)dē-ˈtäks\


Function: noun

1often attrib: detoxification from an intoxicating or addictive substance <began performing ultra rapid detox[1]esCarol Ann Campbell & Fredrick Kunkle> <a detox[1] program> <a detox[1] clinic>
2: a detox program or facility <spent five days in detox[1] at a local hospital Karl Ross>

Detumescence

de*tu*mes*cence
Pronunciation: \ˌdē-t(y)ü-ˈmes-ən(t)s\


Function: noun
: subsidence or diminution of swelling or erection

Dexedrine

Dex*e*drine
Pronunciation: \ˈdek-sə-ˌdrēn, -drən\


Function: trademark
used for a preparation of the sulfate of dextroamphetamine

Diarrhea

di*ar*rhea
Function: noun
: abnormally frequent intestinal evacuations with more or less fluid stools

Disorganization

dis*or*ga*ni*za*tion
Function: noun
: psychopathological inconsistency in personality, mental functions, or overt behavior <psychotic disorganization> <psychomotor disorganization>

Dopamine

do*pa*mine
Pronunciation: \ˈdō-pə-ˌmēn\



Function: noun
1: a monoamine C8H11NO2 that is a decarboxylated form of dopa and occurs esp. as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of epinephrine see intropin

Dyslexia

dys*lex*ia
Pronunciation: \dis-ˈlek-sē-ə\


Function: noun
: a variable often familial learning disability involving difficulties in acquiring and processing language that is typically manifested by a lack of proficiency in reading, spelling, and writing

Dyspraxia

dys*prax*ia
Pronunciation: \dis-ˈprak-sē-ə, -ˈprak-sh(ē-)ə\


Function: noun
: impairment of the ability to perform coordinated movements <dyspraxias of gaze A. G. Waltz>

EEG

EEG
Function: abbreviation
electroencephalogram; electroencephalograph

Echolalia

echo*la*lia
Pronunciation: \ˌek-ō-ˈlā-lē-ə\


Function: noun
: the often pathological repetition of what is said by other people as if echoing them

Elation

ela*tion
Pronunciation: \i-ˈlā-shən\


Function: noun
: pathological euphoria sometimes accompanied by intense pleasure

Electroconvulsive Therapy

electroconvulsive therapy
Function: noun
: the treatment of mental disorder and esp. depression by the application of electric current to the head of a usu. anesthetized patient that induces unconsciousness and convulsive seizures in the brain abbr. ECT—called also electric shock, electric shock therapy, electroshock therapy

Emphysema

em*phy*se*ma
Pronunciation: \ˌem(p)-fə-ˈzē-mə, -ˈsē-\
Function: noun
1: a condition characterized by air-filled expansions in interstitial or subcutaneous tissues; specif: a condition of the lung that is marked by distension and eventual rupture of the alveoli with progressive loss of pulmonary elasticity, that is accompanied by shortness of breath with or without cough, and that may lead to impairment of heart action

Epilepsy

ep*i*lep*sy
Pronunciation: \ˈep-ə-ˌlep-sē\


Function: noun
pl -sies
: any of various disorders marked by abnormal electrical discharges in the brain and typically manifested by sudden brief episodes of altered or diminished consciousness, involuntary movements, or convulsions see grand mal petit mal focal epilepsy jacksonian epilepsy myoclonic epilepsy temporal lobe epilepsy

Epinephrine

epi*neph*rine
Function: noun
: a colorless crystalline feebly basic sympathomimetic hormone C9H13NO3 that is the principal blood-pressure-raising hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla, is prepared from adrenal extracts or made synthetically, and is used medicinally esp. as a heart stimulant, as a vasoconstrictor (as to treat open-angle glaucoma and life-threatening allergic reactions and to prolong the effects of local anesthetics), and as a bronchodilator —called also adrenaline

Erection

erec*tion
Pronunciation: \i-ˈrek-shən\



Function: noun

1: the state marked by firm turgid form and erect position of a previously flaccid bodily part containing cavernous tissue when that tissue becomes dilated with blood
2: an occurrence of erection in the penis or clitoris

Ethanol

eth*a*nol
Pronunciation: \ˈeth-ə-ˌnol, -ˌnōl\


Function: noun
: a colorless volatile flammable liquid C2H5OH that is the intoxicating agent in liquors and is also used as a solvent —called also ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, see alcohol 1

Euphoria

eu*pho*ria
Pronunciation: \yu-ˈfōr-ē-ə, -ˈfor-\



Function: noun
1: a feeling of well-being or elation; esp: one that is groundless, disproportionate to its cause, or inappropriate to one's life situation compare dysphoria

Excitotoxin

ex*ci*to*tox*in
Pronunciation: \ik-ˈsīt-ə-ˌtäk-sən\


Function: noun
: an excitotoxic agent (as kainic acid)

FDA

FDA
Function: abbreviation
Food and Drug Administration

Fertility

fer*til*i*ty
Pronunciation: \(ˌ)fər-ˈtil-ət-ē\



Function: noun
pl -ties

1: the quality or state of being fertile
2: the birthrate of a population compare mortality 2b

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

fetal alcohol syndrome
Function: noun
: a highly variable group of birth defects including mental retardation, deficient growth, central nervous system dysfunction, and malformations of the skull and face that tend to occur in the offspring of women who consume large amounts of alcohol during pregnancy abbr. FAS

Flaccid

flac*cid
Pronunciation: \ˈflas-əd, ˈflak-səd\


Function: adjective
: not firm or stiff; also: lacking normal or youthful firmness <flaccid muscles>

Focus

2focus
Function: verb
fo*cused
also fo*cussed
fo*cus*ing
also fo*cus*sing
transitive verb
1: to bring (as light rays) to a focus
2 a: to adjust the focus of (as the eye or a lens)
b: to bring (as an image) into focusintransitive verb
1: to come to a focus
2: to adjust one's eye or a camera to a particular range

Fragile X Syndrome

fragile X syndrome
Pronunciation: \-ˈeks-\


Function: noun
: an X-linked inherited disorder that is caused by repeats of a trinucleotide sequence on the X chromosome which are abnormal in number and degree of methylation, that is characterized by moderate to severe mental retardation, by large ears, chin, and forehead, and by enlarged testes in males, and that often has limited or no effect in heterozygous females —called also fragile X

Gastrointestinal

gas*tro*in*tes*ti*nal
Pronunciation: \ˌgas-trō-in-ˈtes-tən-əl, -ˈtes(t)-nəl\


Function: adjective
: of, relating to, or affecting both stomach and intestine <gastrointestinal distress>

Genetic

ge*net*ic
Pronunciation: \jə-ˈnet-ik\


Function: adjective

1: of, relating to, or involving genetics
2: of, relating to, caused by, or controlled by genes <a genetic disease> <genetic material> compare acquired 1

Gingivitis

gin*gi*vi*tis
Pronunciation: \ˌjin-jə-ˈvīt-əs\


Function: noun
: inflammation of the gums

Glutamate

glu*ta*mate
Pronunciation: \ˈglüt-ə-ˌmāt\


Function: noun
: a salt or ester of glutamic acid; specif: a salt or ester of levorotatory glutamic acid that functions as an excitatory neurotransmitter see monosodium glutamate

Hallucination

hal*lu*ci*na*tion
Pronunciation: \hə-ˌlüs-ən-ˈā-shən\



Function: noun

1: a perception of something (as a visual image or a sound) with no external cause usu. arising from a disorder of the nervous system (as in delirium tremens or in functional psychosis without known neurological disease) or in response to drugs (as LSD) compare delusion 2 illusion 2a
2: the object of a hallucinatory perception

Hangover

hang*over
Pronunciation: \-ˌō-vər\


Function: noun
: disagreeable physical effects (as headache or nausea) following heavy consumption of alcohol or the use of drugs

Headache

head*ache
Pronunciation: \ˈhed-ˌāk\


Function: noun
: pain in the head —called also cephalalgia

Heart Attack

heart attack
Function: noun
: an acute episode of heart disease marked by the death or damage of heart muscle due to insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle usu. as a result of a coronary thrombosis or a coronary occlusion and that is characterized esp. by chest pain —called also myocardial infarction, compare angina pectoris coronary insufficiency heart failure 1

Heart Disease

Function: noun
1: an abnormal organic condition of the heart or of the heart and circulation

Heart Rate

heart rate
Function: noun
: a measure of cardiac activity usu. expressed as number of beats per minute see maximum heart rate

Hippocampus

hip*po*cam*pus
Pronunciation: \ˌhip-ə-ˈkam-pəs\


Function: noun
pl -pi
Pronunciation: \-ˌpī, -(ˌ)pē\
: a curved elongated ridge that is an important part of the limbic system, extends over the floor of the descending horn of each lateral ventricle of the brain, consists of gray matter covered on the ventricular surface with white matter, and is involved in forming, storing, and processing memory see pes hippocampi

Hyperactive

1hy*per*ac*tive
Pronunciation: \ˌhī-pə-ˈrak-tiv\


Function: adjective
: affected with or exhibiting hyperactivity; broadly: more active than is usual or desirable

Hyperactivity

hy*per*ac*tiv*i*ty
Pronunciation: \ˌhī-pə-ˌrak-ˈtiv-ət-ē\


Function: noun
pl -ties
: a state or condition of being excessively or pathologically active; esp: see: attention deficit disorder

Hypnosis

hyp*no*sis
Pronunciation: \hip-ˈnō-səs\


Function: noun
pl -no*ses
Pronunciation: \-ˌsēz\

1: a trancelike state of altered consciousness that resembles sleep but is induced by a person whose suggestions are readily accepted by the subject
2: any of various conditions that resemble sleep
3: see: hypnotism 1

Hypomania

hy*po*ma*nia
Pronunciation: \ˌhī-pə-ˈmā-nē-ə, -nyə\


Function: noun
: a mild mania esp. when part of bipolar disorder

Hypothalamus

hy*po*thal*a*mus
Pronunciation: \-ˈthal-ə-məs\


Function: noun
pl -mi
Pronunciation: \-ˌmī\
: a basal part of the diencephalon that lies beneath the thalamus on each side, forms the floor of the third ventricle, and includes vital autonomic regulatory centers (as for the control of food intake)

Illusion

il*lu*sion
Pronunciation: \il-ˈü-zhən\



Function: noun

1: a misleading image presented as a visual stimulus
2. a: perception of something objectively existing in such a way as to cause misinterpretation of its actual nature; esp: see: optical illusioncompare delusion 2
b: see: hallucination 1
c: a pattern capable of reversible perspective

Immune System

immune system
Function: noun
: the bodily system that protects the body from foreign substances, cells, and tissues by producing the immune response and that includes esp. the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, special deposits of lymphoid tissue (as in the gastrointestinal tract and bone marrow), lymphocytes including the B cells and T cells, and antibodies

Impotence

im*po*tence
Pronunciation: \ˈim-pət-ən(t)s\



Function: noun

1: the quality or state of not being potent <drug-resistant bacteria are a virulent indicator of the growing impotence of antibiotics>
2: an abnormal physical or psychological state of a male characterized by inability to copulate because of failure to have or maintain an erection —called also erectile dysfunction

Incidence

in*ci*dence
Pronunciation: \ˈin(t)-səd-ən(t)s, -sə-ˌden(t)s\


Function: noun

1 a: see: angle of incidence
b: the arrival of something (as a ray of light) at a surface
2 a: an act or the fact or manner of occurring or affecting <diseases of domestic incidenceScience>
b: rate of occurrence or influence; esp: the rate of occurrence of new cases of a particular disease in a population being studied compare prevalence

Indication

in*di*ca*tion
Pronunciation: \ˌin-də-ˈkā-shən\


Function: noun

1 a: a symptom or particular circumstance that indicates the advisability or necessity of a specific medical treatment or procedure <postpartum hemorrhage is the chief indication for the use of ergot preparations and derivatives C. H. Thienes>
b: something that is indicated as advisable or necessary <in case of collapse the immediate indication is artificial respiration Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc.>
2: the degree indicated in a specific instance or at a specific time on a graduated physical instrument (as a thermometer)

Insomnia

in*som*nia
Pronunciation: \in-ˈsäm-nē-ə\


Function: noun
: prolonged and usu. abnormal inability to obtain adequate sleep —called also agrypnia

Intervention

in*ter*ven*tion
Pronunciation: \ˌint-ər-ˈven-chən\


Function: noun
: the act or fact or a method of interfering with the outcome or course esp. of a condition or process (as to prevent harm or improve functioning) <relieving a variety of serious arrhythmias by surgical intervention G. M. Lawrie et al> <develop interventions to prevent substance abuse A. Kline et al>

Intoxication

in*tox*i*ca*tion
Pronunciation: \in-ˌtäk-sə-ˈkā-shən\


Function: noun

1: an abnormal state that is essentially a poisoning <hypokalemia potentiates digoxin intoxication W. H. Abelmann et al> <no evidence of cocaine intoxication Margaret M. McCarron et al> <acute carbon monoxide intoxication>
2: the condition of being drunk : see: inebriation

Learning Disability

learning disability
Function: noun
: any of various disorders (as dyslexia or dysgraphia) that interfere with an individual's ability to learn resulting in impaired functioning in verbal language, reasoning, or academic skills (as reading, writing, and mathematics) and are thought to be caused by difficulties in processing and integrating information

Libido

li*bi*do
Pronunciation: \lə-ˈbēd-(ˌ)ō also ˈlib-ə-ˌdō or lə-ˈbī-(ˌ)dō\


Function: noun
pl -dos

1: instinctual psychic energy that in psychoanalytic theory is derived from primitive biological urges (as for sexual pleasure or self-preservation) and that is expressed in conscious activity
2: sexual drive

Limbic System

limbic system
Function: noun
: a group of subcortical structures (as the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, and the amygdala) of the brain that are concerned esp. with emotion and motivation

Lithium

lith*i*um
Pronunciation: \ˈlith-ē-əm\


Function: noun

1: a soft silver-white element of the alkali metal group that is the lightest metal known and that is used in chemical synthesis and in storage batteries symbol Lisee element table
2: a lithium salt and esp. lithium carbonate used in psychiatric medicine

MRI

MRI
Pronunciation: \ˌem-(ˌ)är-ˈī\


Function: noun
: see: magnetic resonance imaging; also: a procedure in which magnetic resonance imaging is used

Macular Degeneration

macular degeneration
Function: noun
: progressive deterioration of the macula lutea resulting in a gradual loss of the central part of the field of vision; esp: see: age-related macular degeneration

Mania

ma*nia
Pronunciation: \ˈmā-nē-ə, -nyə\


Function: noun
: excitement of psychotic proportions manifested by mental and physical hyperactivity, disorganization of behavior, and elevation of mood; specif: the manic phase of bipolar disorder

Manic Depression

manic depression
Function: noun
: see: bipolar disorder

Medication

med*i*ca*tion
Pronunciation: \ˌmed-ə-ˈkā-shən\


Function: noun

1: the act or process of medicating
2: a medicinal substance : see: medicament

Methadone

meth*a*done
Pronunciation: \ˈmeth-ə-ˌdōn\


Function: noun
: a synthetic addictive narcotic drug used esp. in the form of its hydrochloride C21H27NO·HCl for the relief of pain and as a substitute narcotic in the treatment of heroin addiction —called also amidone

Narcotic

1nar*cot*ic
Pronunciation: \när-ˈkät-ik\


Function: noun

1: a drug (as codeine, methadone, or morphine) that in moderate doses dulls the senses, relieves pain, and induces profound sleep but in excessive doses causes stupor, coma, or convulsions
2: a drug (as marijuana or LSD) subject to restriction similar to that of addictive narcotics whether in fact physiologically addictive and narcotic or not

Nausea

nau*sea
Pronunciation: \ˈno-zē-ə, -sē-ə; ˈno-zhə, -shə\


Function: noun
: a stomach distress with distaste for food and an urge to vomit

Neurological

neu*ro*log*i*cal
Pronunciation: \-ˈläj-i-kəl\


Function: adjective
: of or relating to neurology

Neurophysiology

neu*ro*phys*i*ol*o*gy
Pronunciation: \ˌn(y)ur-ō-ˌfiz-ē-ˈäl-ə-jē\



Function: noun
1: physiology of the nervous system

Neurotransmitter

neu*ro*trans*mit*ter
Pronunciation: \ˌn(y)ur-ō-tran(t)s-ˈmit-ər, -tranz-\


Function: noun
: a substance (as norepinephrine or acetylcholine) that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse see false neurotransmitter

Nicotine

nic*o*tine
Pronunciation: \ˈnik-ə-ˌtēn\


Function: noun
: a poisonous alkaloid C10H14N2 that is the chief active principle of tobacco and that is used as an insecticide

Nitric Oxide

nitric oxide
Function: noun
: a poisonous colorless gas NO that occurs as a common air pollutant formed by the oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen and that is also formed by the oxidation of arginine in the mammalian body where it acts as a mediator of intracellular and intercellular communication regulating numerous biological processes (as vasodilation and neurotransmission)

OCD

Function: abbreviation
obsessive-compulsive disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

obsessive–compulsive disorder
Function: noun
: a psychoneurotic disorder in which the patient is beset with obsessions or compulsions or both and suffers extreme anxiety or depression through failure to think the obsessive thoughts or perform the compelling acts abbr. OCD—called also obsessive-compulsive neurosis, obsessive-compulsive reaction

Onset

on*set
Pronunciation: \ˈon-ˌset, ˈän-\


Function: noun
: the initial existence or symptoms of a disease <the onset of scarlet fever>

Orgasm

1or*gasm
Pronunciation: \ˈor-ˌgaz-əm\


Function: noun
: the climax of sexual excitement that is usu. accompanied by ejaculation of semen in the male and by vaginal contractions in the female

Outlet

out*let
Pronunciation: \ˈaut-ˌlet, -lət\


Function: noun

1: an opening or a place through which something is let out <the pelvic outlet>
2: a means of release or satisfaction for an emotion or impulse <counseling provides an outlet for expressing and evaluating their feelings Vicki Glaser>

Overdose

1over*dose
Pronunciation: \ˈō-vər-ˌdōs\


Function: noun
: too great a dose (as of a therapeutic agent) <an overdose[1] of exposure to the sun Morris Fishbein> ; also: a lethal or toxic amount (as of a drug)

PTSD

PTSD
Function: abbreviation
post-traumatic stress disorder

Panic Attack

panic attack
Function: noun
: an episode of intense fear or apprehension that is of sudden onset and may occur for no apparent reason or as a reaction to an identifiable triggering stimulus (as a stressful event); specif: one that is accompanied by usu. four or more bodily or cognitive symptoms (as heart palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath, or feelings of unreality) and that typically peaks within 10 minutes of onset

Panic Disorder

Function: noun
: an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent unexpected panic attacks followed by a month or more of worry about their recurrence, implications, or consequences or by a change in behavior related to the panic attacks

Paranoia

para*noia
Pronunciation: \ˌpar-ə-ˈnoi-ə\


Function: noun

1: a psychosis characterized by systematized delusions of persecution or grandeur usu. without hallucinations
2: a tendency on the part of an individual or group toward excessive or irrational suspiciousness and distrustfulness of others

Paranoid

1para*noid
Pronunciation: \ˈpar-ə-ˌnoid\


Function: adjective

1: characterized by or resembling paranoia or paranoid schizophrenia
2: characterized by suspiciousness, persecutory trends, or megalomania

Pathology

pa*thol*o*gy
Pronunciation: \-jē\


Function: noun
pl -gies

1: the study of the essential nature of diseases and esp. of the structural and functional changes produced by them
2: the anatomic and physiological deviations from the normal that constitute disease or characterize a particular disease
3: a treatise on or compilation of abnormalities <a new pathology of the eye>

Perineum

per*i*ne*um
Function: noun
pl -nea
also -naea
Pronunciation: \-ˈnē-ə\

: an area of tissue that marks externally the approximate boundary of the pelvic outlet and gives passage to the urogenital ducts and rectum; also: the area between the anus and the posterior part of the external genitalia esp. in the female

Personality Disorder

personality disorder
Function: noun
: a psychopathological condition or group of conditions in which an individual's entire life pattern is considered deviant or nonadaptive although the individual shows neither neurotic symptoms nor psychotic disorganization

Peyronie's Disease

Pey*ro*nie's disease
Pronunciation: \ˌpā-rə-ˈnēz-, pā-ˈrō-(ˌ)nēz-\



Function: noun
: the formation of fibrous plaques in one or both corpora cavernosa of the penis resulting in distortion or deflection of the erect organ

Phobia

pho*bia
Pronunciation: \ˈfō-bē-ə\


Function: noun
: an exaggerated and often disabling fear usu. inexplicable to the subject and having sometimes a logical but usu. an illogical or symbolic object, class of objects, or situation compare compulsion obsession

Phototherapy

pho*to*ther*a*py
Pronunciation: \-ˈther-ə-pē\



Function: noun
pl -pies
: the application of light for therapeutic purposes

Placebo

pla*ce*bo
Pronunciation: \plə-ˈsē-(ˌ)bō\


Function: noun
pl -bos

1: a usu. pharmacologically inert preparation prescribed more for the mental relief of the patient than for its actual effect on a disorder
2: an inert or innocuous substance used esp. in controlled experiments testing the efficacy of another substance (as a drug)

Plaque

plaque
Function: noun

1 a: a localized abnormal patch on a body part or surface and esp. on the skin <psoriatic plaque>
b: a sticky usu. colorless film on teeth that is formed by and harbors bacteria
c: an atherosclerotic lesion
d: a histopathologic lesion of brain tissue that is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease and consists of a dense proteinaceous core composed primarily of beta-amyloid that is often surrounded and infiltrated by a cluster of degenerating axons and dendrites —called also senile plaque
2: a visibly distinct and esp. a clear or opaque area in a bacterial culture produced by damage to or destruction of cells by a virus

Pneumonia

pneu*mo*nia
Pronunciation: \n(y)u-ˈmō-nyə\
Function: noun
1: a disease of the lungs that is characterized esp. by inflammation and consolidation of lung tissue followed by resolution, is accompanied by fever, chills, cough, and difficulty in breathing, and is caused chiefly by infection see bronchopneumonia lobar pneumonia primary atypical pneumonia

Polygenic

poly*gen*ic
Pronunciation: \ˌpäl-i-ˈjēn-ik, -ˈjen-ik\



Function: adjective
1: of, relating to, or resulting from polygenes : see: multifactorial<a polygenic disorder>

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

post–traumatic stress disorder
Function: noun
: a psychological reaction that occurs after experiencing a highly stressing event (as wartime combat, physical violence, or a natural disaster) outside the range of normal human experience and that is usu. characterized by depression, anxiety, flashbacks, recurrent nightmares, and avoidance of reminders of the event abbr. PTSD—called also delayed-stress disorder, delayed-stress syndrome, post-traumatic stress syndrome, compare combat fatigue

Pregnancy

preg*nan*cy
Pronunciation: \ˈpreg-nən-sē\


Function: noun
pl -cies

1: the condition of being pregnant
2: an instance of being pregnant

Prescription Drug

prescription drug
Function: noun
: a drug that can be obtained only by means of a physician's prescription

Priapism

pri*a*pism
Pronunciation: \ˈprī-ə-ˌpiz-əm\



Function: noun
: an abnormal, more or less persistent, and often painful erection of the penis; esp: one caused by disease rather than sexual desire

Prostate

2prostate
Function: adjective
: of, relating to, or being the prostate gland

Psychiatric

psy*chi*at*ric
Pronunciation: \ˌsī-kē-ˈa-trik\


Function: adjective

1: relating to or employed in psychiatry <psychiatric disorders> <psychiatric drugs>
2: engaged in the practice of psychiatry : dealing with cases of mental disorder <psychiatric experts> <psychiatric nursing> <a psychiatric ward>

Psychiatrist

psy*chi*a*trist
Pronunciation: \sə-ˈkī-ə-trəst, sī-\


Function: noun
: a physician specializing in psychiatry

Psychology

psy*chol*o*gy
Pronunciation: \-jē\


Function: noun
pl -gies

1: the science of mind and behavior
2 a: the mental or behavioral characteristics typical of an individual or group or a particular form of behavior <mob psychology> <the psychology of arson>
b: the study of mind and behavior in relation to a particular field of knowledge or activity <color psychology> <the psychology of learning>
3: a treatise on or a school, system, or branch of psychology

Psychosis

psy*cho*sis
Pronunciation: \sī-ˈkō-səs\



Function: noun

1: a serious mental disorder (as schizophrenia) characterized by defective or lost contact with reality often with hallucinations or delusions

Psychotherapy

psy*cho*ther*a*py
Pronunciation: \ˌsī-kō-ˈther-ə-pē\


Function: noun
pl -pies

1: treatment of mental or emotional disorder or maladjustment by psychological means esp. involving verbal communication (as in psychoanalysis, nondirective psychotherapy, reeducation, or hypnosis)
2: any alteration in an individual's interpersonal environment, relationships, or life situation brought about esp. by a qualified therapist and intended to have the effect of alleviating symptoms of mental or emotional disturbance

Range

1range
Pronunciation: \ˈrānj\


Function: noun
often attrib
1: the region throughout which a kind of organism or ecological community naturally lives or occurs
2: the difference between the least and greatest values of an attribute or of the variable of a frequency distribution

Relapse

1re*lapse
Pronunciation: \ri-ˈlaps, ˈrē-ˌ\


Function: noun
: a recurrence of illness; esp: a recurrence of symptoms of a disease after a period of improvement <a relapse[1] after an 18-month remission M. T. Fosburg et al> compare recrudescence

Remission

re*mis*sion
Pronunciation: \ri-ˈmish-ən\


Function: noun
: a state or period during which the symptoms of a disease are abated <cancer in remission after treatment> compare arrest cure 1 intermission

Ritalin

Rit*a*lin
Pronunciation: \ˈrit-ə-lən\


Function: trademark
used for a preparation of the hydrochloride of methylphenidate

Schizophrenia

schizo*phre*nia
Pronunciation: \ˌskit-sə-ˈfrē-nē-ə\


Function: noun
: a psychotic disorder characterized by loss of contact with the environment, by noticeable deterioration in the level of functioning in everyday life, and by disintegration of personality expressed as disorder of feeling, thought (as in delusions), perception (as in hallucinations), and behavior —called also dementia praecox, see paranoid schizophrenia

Scrotum

scro*tum
Pronunciation: \ˈskrōt-əm\



Function: noun
pl scro*ta
Pronunciation: \-ə\>
or scrotums
: the external sac that in most mammals contains the testes

Seasonal Affective Disorder

sea*son*al affective disorder
Pronunciation: \ˌsēz-ən-əl-\



Function: noun
: depression that tends to recur as the days grow shorter during the fall and winter abbr. SAD

Sedative

1sed*a*tive
Pronunciation: \ˈsed-ət-iv\


Function: adjective
: tending to calm, moderate, or tranquilize nervousness or excitement <sedative[1] effects of anesthetics and analgesics Linda C. Haynes et al>

Semen

se*men
Pronunciation: \ˈsē-mən\


Function: noun
: a viscid whitish fluid of the male reproductive tract consisting of spermatozoa suspended in secretions of accessory glands (as of the prostate and Cowper's glands)

Sensory

sen*so*ry
Pronunciation: \ˈsen(t)s-(ə-)rē\


Function: adjective

1: of or relating to sensation or the senses <sensory stimulation> <sensory data>
2: conveying nerve impulses from the sense organs to the nerve centers : see: afferent<sensory nerve fibers>

Serotonin

se*ro*to*nin
Pronunciation: \ˌsir-ə-ˈtō-nən, ˌser-\


Function: noun
: a phenolic amine neurotransmitter C10H12N2O that is a powerful vasoconstrictor and is found esp. in the brain, blood serum, and gastric mucous membrane of mammals —called also 5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine

Side Effect

side effect
Function: noun
: a secondary and usu. adverse effect (as of a drug) <toxic side effects> <a side effect of drowsiness caused by antihistamines> —called also side reaction

Steroid

ste*roid
Pronunciation: \ˈsti(ə)r-ˌoid also ˈste(ə)r-\



Function: noun
: any of numerous natural or synthetic compounds containing a 17-carbon 4-ring system and including the sterols and various hormones and glycosides see anabolic steroid

Stress

1stress
Pronunciation: \ˈstres\


Function: noun

1 a: a force exerted when one body or body part presses on, pulls on, pushes against, or tends to compress or twist another body or body part; esp: the intensity of this mutual force commonly expressed in pounds per square inch
b: the deformation caused in a body by such a force
2 a: a physical, chemical, or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension and may be a factor in disease causation
b: a state of bodily or mental tension resulting from factors that tend to alter an existent equilibrium
3: the force exerted between teeth of the upper and lower jaws during mastication

Stroke

Pronunciation: \ˈstrōk\



Function: noun
1: sudden diminution or loss of consciousness, sensation, and voluntary motion caused by rupture or obstruction (as by a clot) of a blood vessel of the brain —called also apoplexy, brain attack, cerebral accident, cerebrovascular accident

Synapse

1syn*apse
Pronunciation: \ˈsin-ˌaps also sə-ˈnaps, chiefly Brit ˈsī-ˌnaps\


Function: noun

1: the place at which a nervous impulse passes from one neuron to another
2: see: synapsis

Tardive Dyskinesia
Function: noun
: a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary uncontrollable movements esp. of the mouth, tongue, trunk, and limbs and occurring esp. as a side effect of prolonged use of antipsychotic drugs (as phenothiazine) abbr. TD

Temperature

tem*per*a*ture
Pronunciation: \ˈtem-pə(r)-ˌchu(ə)r, -p(ə-)rə-, -chər, -ˌt(y)u(ə)r\


Function: noun

1: degree of hotness or coldness measured on a definite scale see thermometer
2 a: the degree of heat that is natural to a living body <a normal oral temperature of about 98.6°F>
b: a condition of abnormally high body heat <was running a temperature>

Testosterone

tes*tos*ter*one
Pronunciation: \te-ˈstäs-tə-ˌrōn\



Function: noun
: a male hormone that is a crystalline hydroxy steroid ketone C19H28O2 produced primarily by the testes or made synthetically and that is the main androgen responsible for inducing and maintaining male secondary sex characteristics

Therapist

ther*a*pist
Pronunciation: \ˈther-ə-pəst\


Function: noun
: a person specializing in therapy; esp: one trained in methods of treatment and rehabilitation other than the use of drugs or surgery

Therapy

ther*a*py
Pronunciation: \ˈther-ə-pē\


Function: noun
pl -pies
: therapeutic treatment: as
a: remedial treatment of mental or bodily disorder
b: an agency (as treatment) designed or serving to bring about rehabilitation or social adjustment see occupational therapy recreational therapy

Thyroid

1thy*roid
Pronunciation: \ˈthī-ˌroid\


Function: adjective

1 a: of, relating to, affecting, or being the thyroid gland <thyroid[1] disorders>
2: of, relating to, or being the thyroid cartilage

Toxicity

tox*ic*i*ty
Pronunciation: \täk-ˈsis-ət-ē\


Function: noun
pl -ties
: the quality, state, or relative degree of being toxic or poisonous

Urethra

ure*thra
Pronunciation: \yu-ˈrē-thrə\
Function: noun
1: the canal that in most mammals carries off the urine from the bladder and in the male serves also as a passageway for semen

Vascular

vas*cu*lar
Pronunciation: \ˈvas-kyə-lər\


Function: adjective

1: of, relating to, constituting, or affecting a tube or a system of tubes for the conveyance of a body fluid (as blood or lymph) <vascular disease> <vascular surgical techniques>
2: supplied with or containing ducts and esp. blood vessels <a vascular tumor> <the vascular layer of the skin>

Withdrawal

with*draw*al
Pronunciation: \-ˈdro(ə-)l\


Function: noun

1 a: a pathological retreat from objective reality (as in some schizophrenic states)
b: social or emotional detachment
2 a: the discontinuance of administration or use of a drug
b: the syndrome of often painful physical and psychological symptoms that follows discontinuance of an addicting substance <a heroin addict going through withdrawal>
3: see: coitus interruptus

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