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Metabolic System Glossary

Terms used to explain Metabolic System can sometimes be confusing. To help you fully understand the articles and features related to this very important health topic, we have compiled a glossary of terms that can help.

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Pronunciation: \an-ˈjī-nə, ˈan-jə-\

Function: noun
: a disease marked by spasmodic attacks of intense suffocative pain: as
a: a severe inflammatory or ulcerated condition of the mouth or throat <diphtheritic angina> see ludwig's angina vincent's angina
b: see: angina pectoris


Pronunciation: \ˌan-ə-ˈrek-sē-ə, -ˈrek-shə\

Function: noun

1: loss of appetite esp. when prolonged
2: see: anorexia nervosa


Function: noun

1: transient cessation of respiration whether normal (as in hibernating animals) or abnormal (as that caused by certain drugs) see sleep apnea
2: see: asphyxia


Function: abbreviation
body mass index


Pronunciation: \ˈbinj\

Function: intransitive verb
or bing*ing
: to eat compulsively or greedily esp. as a symptom of bulimia <a self-destructive pattern of smoking, starving, and bingeingCarol Tavris>

Binge Eating Disorder

binge eating disorder
Function: noun
: an eating disorder characterized by recurring episodes of binge eating accompanied by a sense of lack of control and often negative feelings about oneself but without intervening periods of compensatory behavior (as self-induced vomiting, purging by laxatives, fasting, or prolonged exercise)


Pronunciation: \byü-ˈlim-ē-ə, bü-, -ˈlē-mē-\

Function: noun

1: an abnormal and constant craving for food —called also hyperorexia
2: a serious eating disorder that occurs chiefly in females, is characterized by compulsive overeating usu. followed by self-induced vomiting or laxative or diuretic abuse, and is often accompanied by guilt and depression


Pronunciation: \ˈbī-ˌpas\

Function: noun
: a surgically established shunt <cardiopulmonary bypass of blood from the right atrium to the aorta> ; also: a surgical procedure for the establishment of a shunt see coronary bypass gastric bypass jejunoileal bypass


Pronunciation: \ˈkärd-ē-ˌak\

Function: adjective

1 a: of, relating to, situated near, or acting on the heart
b: of or relating to the cardia of the stomach
2: of, relating to, or affected with heart disease

Coronary Heart Disease

coronary heart disease
Function: noun
: see: coronary artery disease


Function: noun
pl -mas
also -ma*ta
Pronunciation: \-mət-ə\

: an abnormal excess accumulation of serous fluid in connective tissue or in a serous cavity —called also dropsy


Pronunciation: \ˈgaut\

Function: noun
: a metabolic disease marked by a painful inflammation of the joints, deposits of urates in and around the joints, and usu. an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood


Pronunciation: \ˈāch-ˈdē-ˈel\
Function: noun
1: a lipoprotein of blood plasma that is composed of a high proportion of protein with little triglyceride and cholesterol and that is associated with decreased probability of developing atherosclerosis —called also alpha-lipoprotein, good cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein

Heart Attack

heart attack
Function: noun
: an acute episode of heart disease marked by the death or damage of heart muscle due to insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle usu. as a result of a coronary thrombosis or a coronary occlusion and that is characterized esp. by chest pain —called also myocardial infarction, compare angina pectoris coronary insufficiency heart failure 1

Heart Disease

Function: noun
1: an abnormal organic condition of the heart or of the heart and circulation


Pronunciation: \-ˌbərn\

Function: noun
: a burning discomfort behind the lower part of the sternum usu. related to spasm of the lower end of the esophagus or of the upper part of the stomach often in association with gastroesophageal reflux —called also cardialgia, pyrosis, compare water brash

High Blood Pressure

high blood pressure
Function: noun
: see: hypertension


Function: noun
: abnormal decrease of sugar in the blood

Insulin Resistance

insulin resistance
Function: noun
: reduced sensitivity to insulin by the body's insulin-dependent processes (as glucose uptake, lipolysis, and inhibition of glucose production by the liver) that results in lowered activity of these processes or an increase in insulin production or both and that is typical of type 2 diabetes but often occurs in the absence of diabetes


Pronunciation: \ˈel-ˈdē-ˈel\

Function: noun
1: a lipoprotein of blood plasma that is composed of a moderate proportion of protein with little triglyceride and a high proportion of cholesterol and that is associated with increased probability of developing atherosclerosis —called also bad cholesterol, beta-lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, compare hdl vldl

Metabolic Syndrome

Function: noun
1: a syndrome marked by the presence of usu. three or more of a group of factors (as high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, high triglyceride levels, low HDL levels, and high fasting levels of blood sugar) that are linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes —called also insulin resistance syndrome, syndrome X


Pronunciation: \mə-ˈtab-ə-ˌliz-əm\

Function: noun

1 a: the sum of the processes in the buildup and destruction of protoplasm; specif: the chemical changes in living cells by which energy is provided for vital processes and activities and new material is assimilated <methods of determining body and tissue metabolismBull. of the Univ. of Ky.> see anabolism catabolism
b: the sum of the processes by which a particular substance is handled (as by assimilation and incorporation or by detoxification and excretion) in the living body <the metabolism of iodine in the thyroid>
2: see: metamorphosis 2usu. used in combination<holometabolism>


Pronunciation: \-ˈwāt\

Function: adjective
: weighing in excess of the normal for one's age, height, and build <overweight adolescents> <overweight adults typically have a body mass index of 25 to 29.9>

Risk Factor

risk factor
Function: noun
: something which increases risk or susceptibility <a fatty diet is a risk factor for heart disease>


Pronunciation: \(ˈ)trī-ˈglis-ə-ˌrīd\

Function: noun
: any of a group of lipids that are esters formed from one molecule of glycerol and three molecules of one or more fatty acids, are widespread in adipose tissue, and commonly circulate in the blood in the form of lipoproteins —called also neutral fat

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