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Poisoning and Environmental Health Glossary

Terms used to explain Poisoning and Environmental Health can sometimes be confusing. To help you fully understand the articles and features related to this very important health topic, we have compiled a glossary of terms that can help.

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AA

AA
Function: abbreviation

1 achievement age
2 Alcoholics Anonymous

Addiction

ad*dic*tion
Pronunciation: \ə-ˈdik-shən\


Function: noun
: compulsive physiological need for and use of a habit-forming substance (as heroin, nicotine, or alcohol) characterized by tolerance and by well-defined physiological symptoms upon withdrawal; broadly: persistent compulsive use of a substance known by the user to be physically, psychologically, or socially harmful compare habituation

Amenorrhea

amen*or*rhea
Function: noun
: abnormal absence or suppression of menstruation see primary amenorrhea secondary amenorrhea

Androgen

an*dro*gen
Pronunciation: \ˈan-drə-jən\


Function: noun
: a male sex hormone (as testosterone)

Antihistamine

2antihistamine
Function: noun
: any of various compounds that oppose the actions of histamine and are used esp. for treating allergic reactions (as hay fever), cold symptoms, and motion sickness

Artificial Insemination

artificial insemination
Function: noun
: introduction of semen into part of the female reproductive tract (as the cervical opening, uterus, or fallopian tube) by other than natural means

Blastocyst

blas*to*cyst
Pronunciation: \ˈblas-tə-ˌsist\


Function: noun
: the modified blastula of a placental mammal

Bronchitis

bron*chi*tis
Pronunciation: \brän-ˈkīt-əs, bräŋ-\
Function: noun
1: acute or chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes; also: a disease marked by this

Carbon Monoxide

carbon monoxide
Function: noun
: a colorless odorless very toxic gas CO that burns to carbon dioxide with a blue flame and is formed as a product of the incomplete combustion of carbon

Cataract

cat*a*ract
Pronunciation: \ˈkat-ə-ˌrakt\


Function: noun
: a clouding of the lens of the eye or its surrounding transparent membrane that obstructs the passage of light

Chemical Dependence

chemical dependence
Function: noun
: addiction to or dependence on drugs

Cirrhosis

cir*rho*sis
Pronunciation: \sə-ˈrō-səs\



Function: noun
pl -rho*ses
Pronunciation: \-ˌsēz\

: widespread disruption of normal liver structure by fibrosis and the formation of regenerative nodules that is caused by any of various chronic progressive conditions affecting the liver (as long-term alcohol abuse or hepatitis) see biliary cirrhosis

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Function: noun
1: see: cognitive therapy

Contraception

con*tra*cep*tion
Pronunciation: \ˌkän-trə-ˈsep-shən\


Function: noun
: deliberate prevention of conception or impregnation

Denial

de*ni*al
Pronunciation: \di-ˈnī(-ə)l\


Function: noun
: a psychological defense mechanism in which confrontation with a personal problem or with reality is avoided by denying the existence of the problem or reality

Depressant

1de*pres*sant
Pronunciation: \-ənt\


Function: adjective
: tending to depress; esp: lowering or tending to lower functional or vital activity <a drug with a depressant[1] effect on heart rate>

Detox

1de*tox
Pronunciation: \(ˈ)dē-ˈtäks\


Function: noun

1often attrib: detoxification from an intoxicating or addictive substance <began performing ultra rapid detox[1]esCarol Ann Campbell & Fredrick Kunkle> <a detox[1] program> <a detox[1] clinic>
2: a detox program or facility <spent five days in detox[1] at a local hospital Karl Ross>

Dilation And Curettage

dilation and curettage
Function: noun
: a medical procedure in which the uterine cervix is dilated and a curette is inserted into the uterus to scrape away the endometrium (as for the diagnosis or treatment of abnormal bleeding or for surgical abortion during the early part of the second trimester of pregnancy) —called also D&C

Dysmenorrhea

dys*men*or*rhea
Function: noun
: painful menstruation see spasmodic dysmenorrhea

Ectopic Pregnancy

ectopic pregnancy
Function: noun

: gestation elsewhere than in the uterus (as in a fallopian tube or in the peritoneal cavity) —called also ectopic gestation, extrauterine gestation, extrauterine pregnancy

Ejaculate

2ejac*u*late
Pronunciation: \-lət\


Function: noun
: the semen released by one ejaculation

Emphysema

em*phy*se*ma
Pronunciation: \ˌem(p)-fə-ˈzē-mə, -ˈsē-\
Function: noun
1: a condition characterized by air-filled expansions in interstitial or subcutaneous tissues; specif: a condition of the lung that is marked by distension and eventual rupture of the alveoli with progressive loss of pulmonary elasticity, that is accompanied by shortness of breath with or without cough, and that may lead to impairment of heart action

Endometrium

en*do*me*tri*um
Pronunciation: \-ˈmē-trē-əm\


Function: noun
pl -tria
Pronunciation: \-trē-ə\
: the mucous membrane lining the uterus that is composed of three layers see stratum basale stratum compactum stratum spongiosum

Estrogen

es*tro*gen
Pronunciation: \ˈes-trə-jən\


Function: noun
: any of various natural steroids (as estradiol) that are formed from androgen precursors, that are secreted chiefly by the ovaries, placenta, adipose tissue, and testes, and that stimulate the development of female secondary sex characteristics and promote the growth and maintenance of the female reproductive system; also: any of various synthetic or semisynthetic steroids (as ethinyl estradiol) that mimic the physiological effect of natural estrogens

Ethanol

eth*a*nol
Pronunciation: \ˈeth-ə-ˌnol, -ˌnōl\


Function: noun
: a colorless volatile flammable liquid C2H5OH that is the intoxicating agent in liquors and is also used as a solvent —called also ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, see alcohol 1

Fallopian Tube

fallopian tube
Function: noun
often cap F: either of the pair of tubes that carry the eggs from the ovary to the uterus —called also uterine tube

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

fetal alcohol syndrome
Function: noun
: a highly variable group of birth defects including mental retardation, deficient growth, central nervous system dysfunction, and malformations of the skull and face that tend to occur in the offspring of women who consume large amounts of alcohol during pregnancy abbr. FAS

Gingivitis

gin*gi*vi*tis
Pronunciation: \ˌjin-jə-ˈvīt-əs\


Function: noun
: inflammation of the gums

Hangover

hang*over
Pronunciation: \-ˌō-vər\


Function: noun
: disagreeable physical effects (as headache or nausea) following heavy consumption of alcohol or the use of drugs

Heart Attack

heart attack
Function: noun
: an acute episode of heart disease marked by the death or damage of heart muscle due to insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle usu. as a result of a coronary thrombosis or a coronary occlusion and that is characterized esp. by chest pain —called also myocardial infarction, compare angina pectoris coronary insufficiency heart failure 1

Heart Disease

Function: noun
1: an abnormal organic condition of the heart or of the heart and circulation

Hyperactivity

hy*per*ac*tiv*i*ty
Pronunciation: \ˌhī-pə-ˌrak-ˈtiv-ət-ē\


Function: noun
pl -ties
: a state or condition of being excessively or pathologically active; esp: see: attention deficit disorder

Hypnosis

hyp*no*sis
Pronunciation: \hip-ˈnō-səs\


Function: noun
pl -no*ses
Pronunciation: \-ˌsēz\

1: a trancelike state of altered consciousness that resembles sleep but is induced by a person whose suggestions are readily accepted by the subject
2: any of various conditions that resemble sleep
3: see: hypnotism 1

Hysterectomy

hys*ter*ec*to*my
Pronunciation: \ˌhis-tə-ˈrek-tə-mē\


Function: noun
pl -mies
: surgical removal of the uterus see ovariohysterectomy panhysterectomy radical hysterectomy supracervical hysterectomy

Insomnia

in*som*nia
Pronunciation: \in-ˈsäm-nē-ə\


Function: noun
: prolonged and usu. abnormal inability to obtain adequate sleep —called also agrypnia

Intervention

in*ter*ven*tion
Pronunciation: \ˌint-ər-ˈven-chən\


Function: noun
: the act or fact or a method of interfering with the outcome or course esp. of a condition or process (as to prevent harm or improve functioning) <relieving a variety of serious arrhythmias by surgical intervention G. M. Lawrie et al> <develop interventions to prevent substance abuse A. Kline et al>

Intoxication

in*tox*i*ca*tion
Pronunciation: \in-ˌtäk-sə-ˈkā-shən\


Function: noun

1: an abnormal state that is essentially a poisoning <hypokalemia potentiates digoxin intoxication W. H. Abelmann et al> <no evidence of cocaine intoxication Margaret M. McCarron et al> <acute carbon monoxide intoxication>
2: the condition of being drunk : see: inebriation

Macular Degeneration

macular degeneration
Function: noun
: progressive deterioration of the macula lutea resulting in a gradual loss of the central part of the field of vision; esp: see: age-related macular degeneration

Methadone

meth*a*done
Pronunciation: \ˈmeth-ə-ˌdōn\


Function: noun
: a synthetic addictive narcotic drug used esp. in the form of its hydrochloride C21H27NO·HCl for the relief of pain and as a substitute narcotic in the treatment of heroin addiction —called also amidone

Miscarriage

mis*car*riage
Pronunciation: \mis-ˈkar-ij\


Function: noun
: spontaneous expulsion of a human fetus before it is viable and esp. between the 12th and 28th weeks of gestation compare abortion 1a

Narcotic

1nar*cot*ic
Pronunciation: \när-ˈkät-ik\


Function: noun

1: a drug (as codeine, methadone, or morphine) that in moderate doses dulls the senses, relieves pain, and induces profound sleep but in excessive doses causes stupor, coma, or convulsions
2: a drug (as marijuana or LSD) subject to restriction similar to that of addictive narcotics whether in fact physiologically addictive and narcotic or not

Nausea

nau*sea
Pronunciation: \ˈno-zē-ə, -sē-ə; ˈno-zhə, -shə\


Function: noun
: a stomach distress with distaste for food and an urge to vomit

Neurotransmitter

neu*ro*trans*mit*ter
Pronunciation: \ˌn(y)ur-ō-tran(t)s-ˈmit-ər, -tranz-\


Function: noun
: a substance (as norepinephrine or acetylcholine) that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse see false neurotransmitter

Nicotine

nic*o*tine
Pronunciation: \ˈnik-ə-ˌtēn\


Function: noun
: a poisonous alkaloid C10H14N2 that is the chief active principle of tobacco and that is used as an insecticide

Overdose

1over*dose
Pronunciation: \ˈō-vər-ˌdōs\


Function: noun
: too great a dose (as of a therapeutic agent) <an overdose[1] of exposure to the sun Morris Fishbein> ; also: a lethal or toxic amount (as of a drug)

Pneumonia

pneu*mo*nia
Pronunciation: \n(y)u-ˈmō-nyə\
Function: noun
1: a disease of the lungs that is characterized esp. by inflammation and consolidation of lung tissue followed by resolution, is accompanied by fever, chills, cough, and difficulty in breathing, and is caused chiefly by infection see bronchopneumonia lobar pneumonia primary atypical pneumonia

Pregnancy

preg*nan*cy
Pronunciation: \ˈpreg-nən-sē\


Function: noun
pl -cies

1: the condition of being pregnant
2: an instance of being pregnant

Prescription Drug

prescription drug
Function: noun
: a drug that can be obtained only by means of a physician's prescription

Psychotherapy

psy*cho*ther*a*py
Pronunciation: \ˌsī-kō-ˈther-ə-pē\


Function: noun
pl -pies

1: treatment of mental or emotional disorder or maladjustment by psychological means esp. involving verbal communication (as in psychoanalysis, nondirective psychotherapy, reeducation, or hypnosis)
2: any alteration in an individual's interpersonal environment, relationships, or life situation brought about esp. by a qualified therapist and intended to have the effect of alleviating symptoms of mental or emotional disturbance

Relapse

1re*lapse
Pronunciation: \ri-ˈlaps, ˈrē-ˌ\


Function: noun
: a recurrence of illness; esp: a recurrence of symptoms of a disease after a period of improvement <a relapse[1] after an 18-month remission M. T. Fosburg et al> compare recrudescence

Side Effect

side effect
Function: noun
: a secondary and usu. adverse effect (as of a drug) <toxic side effects> <a side effect of drowsiness caused by antihistamines> —called also side reaction

Sperm

sperm
Pronunciation: \ˈspərm\


Function: noun
pl sperm
or sperms

1: the male impregnating fluid : see: semen
2: a male gamete; esp: see: spermatozoon

Steroid

ste*roid
Pronunciation: \ˈsti(ə)r-ˌoid also ˈste(ə)r-\



Function: noun
: any of numerous natural or synthetic compounds containing a 17-carbon 4-ring system and including the sterols and various hormones and glycosides see anabolic steroid

Stress

1stress
Pronunciation: \ˈstres\


Function: noun

1 a: a force exerted when one body or body part presses on, pulls on, pushes against, or tends to compress or twist another body or body part; esp: the intensity of this mutual force commonly expressed in pounds per square inch
b: the deformation caused in a body by such a force
2 a: a physical, chemical, or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension and may be a factor in disease causation
b: a state of bodily or mental tension resulting from factors that tend to alter an existent equilibrium
3: the force exerted between teeth of the upper and lower jaws during mastication

Stroke

Pronunciation: \ˈstrōk\



Function: noun
1: sudden diminution or loss of consciousness, sensation, and voluntary motion caused by rupture or obstruction (as by a clot) of a blood vessel of the brain —called also apoplexy, brain attack, cerebral accident, cerebrovascular accident

Toxicity

tox*ic*i*ty
Pronunciation: \täk-ˈsis-ət-ē\


Function: noun
pl -ties
: the quality, state, or relative degree of being toxic or poisonous

Withdrawal

with*draw*al
Pronunciation: \-ˈdro(ə-)l\


Function: noun

1 a: a pathological retreat from objective reality (as in some schizophrenic states)
b: social or emotional detachment
2 a: the discontinuance of administration or use of a drug
b: the syndrome of often painful physical and psychological symptoms that follows discontinuance of an addicting substance <a heroin addict going through withdrawal>
3: see: coitus interruptus

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