According to the American Heart Association (AHA), diseases caused by smoking kill more than 440,000 people in the United States each year; of that number, more than 135,000 deaths are cardiovascular related. Even with anti-smoking campaigns and medical disclaimers in place, many people continue to smoke or start smoking every year. According to the American Cancer Society, 90 percent of new smokers are children and teenagers, in many cases replacing the smokers who quit or died prematurely from a smoking-related disease.

Smokers not only have increased risk of lung disease, including lung cancer and emphysema, but also have increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and oral cancer.

Facts about smoking and teens

Consider the latest statistics available from the American Lung Association:

  • Every day approximately 3,600 children between 12 and 17 years of age smoke their first cigarette, and an estimated 1,100 of them will become regular smokers.

  • At least 4.5 million adolescents (ages 12 to 17 years) are current smokers.

  • Among 12th graders, 20 percent smoke cigarettes daily.

How does smoking affect the cardiovascular system?

In posing health risks on the body's cardiovascular system, smoking:

  • Causes immediate and long-term increases in blood pressure.

  • Causes immediate and long-term increases in heart rate.

  • Reduces cardiac output and coronary blood flow.

  • Reduces the amount of oxygen that reaches the body's tissues.

  • Changes the properties of blood vessels and blood cells, allowing cholesterol and other fatty substances to build up.

  • Contributes to higher blood pressure and increased risk of blood clot formation.

  • Damages blood vessels.

  • Doubles the risk of ischemic stroke (reduced blood flow to the brain).

  • Stimulates the blood clotting process.

In addition, smoking has been associated with depression and psychological distress.

What are the risks of secondhand smoke?

The American Heart Association reports that an estimated 35,052 nonsmokers die from coronary heart disease each year as a result of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke. Secondhand smoke is smoke that is exhaled by smokers and smoke emitted from the burning end of a lit cigarette, cigar, or pipe.

Both direct and indirect smoking exposure poses significant health hazards to pregnant women, infants, and young children. Children and infants exposed to tobacco smoke are more likely to experience ear infections and asthma, and are at a higher risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) than children and infants without the same exposure.

The following common symptoms may be associated with exposure to secondhand smoke. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat

  • Coughing

  • Excessive phlegm (mucus in the airways)

  • Chest discomfort from lung irritation

  • Chest pain, which may indicate heart disease

The symptoms of secondhand smoke exposure may resemble other medical conditions and problems. Always consult your adolescent's physician for a diagnosis.

Smoking and cardiovascular disease

Smoking, in addition to high cholesterol, high blood pressure, physical inactivity, obesity, and diabetes, tops the list as a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In fact, smoking has been classified as the single most preventable cause of premature death in the US.

Importance of smoking cessation

According to the American Heart Association, eliminating smoking not only reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, but also reduces the risk of repeat heart attacks and death by heart disease by 50 percent. Research also indicates that smoking cessation is crucial in the management of many contributors to heart attack, including atherosclerosis, thrombosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiac arrhythmias.

Importance of quitting smoking

Quitting smoking is both a mental and a physical undertaking. Mentally, you should be ready and relatively stress-free. Physically, you need to commit to exercising daily and getting plenty of sleep. A person trying to quit must overcome two obstacles: a physical addiction to nicotine and a habit. The American Academy of Otolaryngology and the American Lung Association offer the following tips to help users quit using tobacco products:

Reference: Osteoporosis section on Better Medicine


Did You Know?

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Women ages 19 to 50 need at least 1,000 milligrams of calcium every day. Younger women and women older than 50 need even more.