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Colon Cancer Glossary

Terms used to explain Colorectal Cancer can sometimes be confusing. To help you fully understand the articles and features related to this very important health topic, we have compiled a glossary of terms that can help.

Adenocarcinoma

ad*e*no*car*ci*no*ma
Pronunciation: \-ˌkärs-ən-ˈō-mə\


Function: noun
pl -mas
also -ma*ta
Pronunciation: \-mət-ə\
: a malignant tumor originating in glandular epithelium

Adenoma

ad*e*no*ma
Pronunciation: \ˌad-ən-ˈō-mə\



Function: noun
pl -mas
also -ma*ta
Pronunciation: \-mət-ə\

: a benign tumor of a glandular structure or of glandular origin

Biopsy

1bi*op*sy
Pronunciation: \ˈbī-ˌäp-sē\


Function: noun
pl -sies
: the removal and examination of tissue, cells, or fluids from the living body

CT Scan

CT scan
Pronunciation: \(ˈ)sē-ˈtē-\


Function: noun
: see: cat scan

Chemotherapy

che*mo*ther*a*py
Pronunciation: \-ˈther-ə-pē\


Function: noun
pl -pies
: the use of chemical agents in the treatment or control of disease or mental disorder

Colonoscopy

co*lo*nos*co*py
Pronunciation: \ˌkō-lə-ˈnäs-kə-pē, ˌkäl-ə-\


Function: noun
pl -pies
: endoscopic examination of the colon <transabdominal colonoscopy with a sigmoidoscope via colotomy>

Endoscope

en*do*scope
Pronunciation: \ˈen-də-ˌskōp\


Function: noun
: an illuminated usu. fiber-optic flexible or rigid tubular instrument for visualizing the interior of a hollow organ or part (as the bladder or esophagus) for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes that typically has one or more channels to enable passage of instruments (as forceps or scissors)

FOBT

FOBT
Function: abbreviation
fecal occult blood test; fecal occult blood testing

Lymph Nodule

lymph nodule
Function: noun
: a small simple lymph node

Malignant

ma*lig*nant
Pronunciation: \mə-ˈlig-nənt\


Function: adjective

1: tending to produce death or deterioration <malignant malaria> ; esp: tending to infiltrate, metastasize, and terminate fatally <malignant tumors> compare benign 1
2: of unfavorable prognosis : not responding favorably to treatment <psychotic reactions with a malignant trend>

Muscularis

mus*cu*la*ris
Pronunciation: \ˌməs-kyə-ˈlar-əs\


Function: noun

1: the smooth muscular layer of the wall of various more or less contractile organs (as the bladder)
2: the thin layer of smooth muscle that forms part of a mucous membrane (as in the esophagus)

Polyp

pol*yp
Pronunciation: \ˈpäl-əp\


Function: noun
: a projecting mass of swollen and hypertrophied or tumorous membrane (as in the nasal cavity or the intestine) —called also polypus

Radiation Therapy

radiation therapy
Function: noun
: see: radiotherapy

Sigmoid Colon

sigmoid colon
Function: noun
: the contracted and crooked part of the colon immediately above the rectum —called also pelvic colon, sigmoid flexure

Sigmoidoscopy

sig*moid*os*co*py
Pronunciation: \ˌsig-ˌmoi-ˈdäs-kə-pē\


Function: noun
pl -pies
: the process of using a sigmoidoscope —called also proctosigmoidoscopy

Ultrasound

1ul*tra*sound
Pronunciation: \ˈəl-trə-ˌsaund\


Function: noun

1: vibrations of the same physical nature as sound but with frequencies above the range of human hearing compare infrasound
2: the diagnostic or therapeutic use of ultrasound and esp. a noninvasive technique involving the formation of a two-dimensional image used for the examination and measurement of internal body structures and the detection of bodily abnormalities —called also echography, sonography, ultrasonography
3: a diagnostic examination using ultrasound

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© 2011 Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Published under license with Merriam-Webster, Inc.

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