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Osteoporosis Glossary

Terms used to explain Osteoporosis can sometimes be confusing. To help you fully understand the articles and features related to this very important health topic, we have compiled a glossary of terms that can help.

Amenorrhea

amen*or*rhea
Function: noun
: abnormal absence or suppression of menstruation see primary amenorrhea secondary amenorrhea

Calcium

cal*ci*um
Pronunciation: \ˈkal-sē-əm\


Function: noun
often attrib: a silver-white bivalent metallic element that is an alkaline earth metal, occurs only in combination, and is an essential constituent of most plants and animals symbol Casee element table

Estrogen

es*tro*gen
Pronunciation: \ˈes-trə-jən\


Function: noun
: any of various natural steroids (as estradiol) that are formed from androgen precursors, that are secreted chiefly by the ovaries, placenta, adipose tissue, and testes, and that stimulate the development of female secondary sex characteristics and promote the growth and maintenance of the female reproductive system; also: any of various synthetic or semisynthetic steroids (as ethinyl estradiol) that mimic the physiological effect of natural estrogens

Hormone

hor*mone
Pronunciation: \ˈhor-ˌmōn\


Function: noun

1 a: a product of living cells that circulates in body fluids (as blood) or sap and produces a specific often stimulatory effect on the activity of cells usu. remote from its point of origin —called also internal secretion, see plant hormone
b: a synthetic substance that acts like a hormone
2: see: sex hormone

Hyperparathyroidism

hy*per*para*thy*roid*ism
Pronunciation: \-ˌpar-ə-ˈthī-ˌroid-ˌiz-əm\


Function: noun
: the presence of excess parathyroid hormone in the body resulting in disturbance of calcium metabolism with increase in serum calcium and decrease in inorganic phosphorus, loss of calcium from bone, and renal damage with frequent kidney-stone formation

Libido

li*bi*do
Pronunciation: \lə-ˈbēd-(ˌ)ō also ˈlib-ə-ˌdō or lə-ˈbī-(ˌ)dō\


Function: noun
pl -dos

1: instinctual psychic energy that in psychoanalytic theory is derived from primitive biological urges (as for sexual pleasure or self-preservation) and that is expressed in conscious activity
2: sexual drive

Menopause

meno*pause
Pronunciation: \ˈmen-ə-ˌpoz, ˈmēn-\



Function: noun

1 a (1): the natural cessation of menstruation occurring usu. between the ages of 45 and 55 with a mean in Western cultures of approximately 51
(2): the physiological period in the life of a woman in which such cessation and the accompanying regression of ovarian function occurs —called also climacteric, compare perimenopause
b: cessation of menstruation from other than natural causes (as from surgical removal of the ovaries)
2: see: andropause

Osteocyte

os*teo*cyte
Pronunciation: \ˈäs-tē-ə-ˌsīt\


Function: noun
: a cell that is characteristic of adult bone and is isolated in a lacuna of the bone substance

Parathyroid

1para*thy*roid
Pronunciation: \-ˈthī-ˌroid\


Function: noun
: see: parathyroid gland

Perimenopause

peri*men*o*pause
Pronunciation: \-ˈmen-ə-ˌpoz, -ˈmēn-\


Function: noun
: the period around the onset of menopause that is often marked by various physical signs (as hot flashes and menstrual irregularity)

Porous

po*rous
Pronunciation: \ˈpōr-əs, ˈpor-\


Function: adjective

1: possessing or full of pores <porous bones>
2: permeable to fluids

Resorption

re*sorp*tion
Pronunciation: \(ˈ)rē-ˈsorp-shən, -ˈzorp-\


Function: noun
: the action or process of resorbing something <age-related bone loss…is caused by a slight but persistent elevation in the rate of bone resorption over the rate of bone formation P. S. Millard et al>

Trabecular

tra*bec*u*lar
Pronunciation: \-lər\


Function: adjective
: of, relating to, consisting of, or being trabeculae <trabecular tissue>

Vitamin D

vitamin D
Function: noun
: any or all of several fat-soluble vitamins chemically related to steroids, essential for normal bone and tooth structure, and found esp. in fish-liver oils, egg yolk, and milk or produced by activation (as by ultraviolet irradiation) of sterols: as
a: see: calciferol
b: see: cholecalciferol—called also sunshine vitamin

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© 2011 Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Published under license with Merriam-Webster, Inc.

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Women ages 19 to 50 need at least 1,000 milligrams of calcium every day. Younger women and women older than 50 need even more.