What is post-traumatic stress disorder?
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that often follows a terrifying physical or emotional event, causing the person who survived the event to have persistent, frightening thoughts and memories, or flashbacks, of the ordeal. Sometimes effects from the traumatic events can be delayed for six months or longer, but when PTSD occurs soon after an event, the condition generally improves after three months. Some people with PTSD have long-term effects and often feel chronically, emotionally numb. PTSD in children usually becomes a chronic disorder.
What causes post-traumatic stress disorder?
The event(s) that triggers PTSD may be:
Something that occurred in the person's life.
Something that occurred in the life of someone close to him or her.
Something the person witnessed.
A child's risk for developing PTSD is often affected by the child's proximity and relationship to the trauma, the severity of the trauma, the duration of the traumatic event, the recurrence of the traumatic event, the resiliency of the child, the coping skills of the child, and the support resources available to the child from the family and community following the event(s).
The following are some examples of catastrophic, life-threatening events that may cause PTSD if experienced or witnessed as a child or adolescent:
Serious accidents (such as car or train wrecks)
Natural disasters (such as floods or earthquakes)
Man-made tragedies (such as bombings)
Violent personal attacks (such as a mugging, rape, torture, being held captive, or kidnapping)
Who is affected by post-traumatic stress disorder?
It is estimated that over 5 million children are exposed to some form of trauma each year in the U.S. According to the National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, of those children and adolescents who have experienced trauma, 3 to 15 percent of girls and 1 to 6 percent of boys could be diagnosed with PTSD.
What are the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder?
The following are the most common symptoms of PTSD. However, each child may experience signs differently.
Children and adolescents with PTSD experience extreme emotional, mental, and physical distress when exposed to situations that remind them of the traumatic event. Some may repeatedly relive the trauma in the form of nightmares and disturbing recollections during the day and may also experience any, or all, of the following:
Feeling jittery or "on guard"
Being easily startled
Loss of interest in things they used to enjoy; detachment; general lack of responsiveness; feeling numb
Trouble feeling affectionate
Irritability, more aggressive than before, or even violent
Avoiding certain places or situations that bring back memories
Flashbacks or intrusive images (flashbacks can come in the form of images, sounds, smells, or feelings; a person usually believes that the traumatic event is happening all over again)
Losing touch with reality
Reenactment of an event for a period of seconds or hours or, very rarely, days
Problems in school; difficulty concentrating
Worry about dying at an early age
Regressive behaviors; acting younger than their age (such as thumb-sucking, bedwetting)
Physical symptoms (such as headaches, stomachaches)
How is post-traumatic stress disorder diagnosed?
Not every child or adolescent who experiences a trauma develops PTSD. PTSD is diagnosed only if symptoms persist for more than one month and are adversely affecting the child's life and level of functioning. In those who do have PTSD, symptoms usually begin within three months following the trauma, but can also start months or years later.
PTSD can occur at any age, including childhood, and may be accompanied by:
The length of the condition varies. Some people recover within six months, others have symptoms that last much longer.
A child psychiatrist or other qualified mental health professional usually diagnoses PTSD in children or adolescents following a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation. Parents who note symptoms of PTSD in their child or teen can help by seeking an evaluation early. Early treatment can decrease future problems.